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A Thousand Years as A Watch in the Night: The Psalm of Moses and the Life and Times of Bruce Fields and Stephen Wiest

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The Feast of Michelmas from Gottesdienst

 

     In the darkness of the night here in San Antonio, my thoughts are being penned by candlelight.  I wonder about the present and the future and what they hold for me, even as my thoughts in the darkness return to times long, long ago. When sleep does not easily come, it is usually related to my inability to turn off my mind which races from idea to idea, thought to thought, person to person, place to place, past, present, and future in milliseconds. These kinds of nights have become more frequent as of late.  I use the time to read, ponder, meditate, and pray in the enshrouding nocturnal silence.  I used to have these kinds of nights when I was a seminary student in suburban Chicago decades ago.  The only sound was the occasional distant hum of distant traffic on the Tri-State Tollway, or what was called I-294 in those days.  Eerily enough, that has been substituted for me in my home in Texas by the occasional sound of a train horn and box cars penetrating the stillness.

     If you’re wondering late tonight how time has passed as quickly in your life as it has, there is arguably no place in Holy Scripture better to consult about the speed of time, the brevity of life, and the inevitability of death than Psalm 90.  At Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, the study of Martin Luther’s commentary on the Psalm was a staple of my academic and devotional life in that institution light years ago.  Several current papers available on the subject may be accessed with reference to At the Grave With Moses and Luther:  The Theology of the Cross in Psalm 90 by Matthew V. Moss, and Brian T. German’s hefty 223 page doctoral thesis entitled, Martin Luther’s First Psalm Lectures.

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     This past month marked the passing of African-American evangelical theologian and professor, Dr. Bruce Fields, with whom I studied as a peer at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in suburban Chicago a lifetime ago.  Two other peers from that era have passed away years before anyone could have imagined it.  John Eppler was one.  The second was Lutheran theologian and pastor par excellence, Stephen Wiest.  Michael James Hill has written of the Wiest passage from this life to an eternity with Christ.  Gottesdienst has thankfully preserved a Wiest homily for the Feast of St. Michael, delivered in 1996 and published by the latter a year later.

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The Theology of The Cross

     Each of these transitions and passages reminds me of the truths of Psalm 90, even more than the deaths of my most legendary professors at Trinity, including Carl F. H. Henry, Gleason Archer, Thomas McComiskey, Kenneth Kantzer, Harold O. J. Brown, and Paul Feinberg.  These latter giants were of a previous generation in my younger days.  Fields, Wiest, and Eppler were all of my own generation in time and space.  All of the latter were in various teaching and pastoral ministries when I put my own quest for a Ph.D in Systematic Theology and Theological German on hold after 9-11, to pursue what God so indicated I should in the way of what I pray will be eventually understood in retrospective hagiography as a calling as a broadcaster and print journalist in alternative media in America’s darkest and most perilous days.  Right up to the present time, I have always understood this second calling later in life as one motivated and informed by my evangelical Lutheran theology and the eschatological context in which I see historical and political developments.  Many radio listeners and newspaper readers have understood this, even when the complacent institutional American church and its comatose clergy did not.  Stephen Wiest was a pastor and theologian who did understand, even as most did not grasp what I had simply assumed was the obvious.  Stephen did not see the possibility of Christian martyrdom in post-Christian America as melodramatic or hyperbolic in any sense of the word.  Herman Otten, the late editor of Christian News, was yet another Lutheran pastor who understood the personal risks involved in the pursuit of one’s calling, either in traditional parish ministry and academia, or in alternative media.  The temporal risks are Legion, to be understood in light of Paul’s warnings in Ephesians 6: 10-13:

Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might.

Put on the whole armor of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.

For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

Wherefore take unto you the whole armor of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand.

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Dr. Bruce Fields of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School

      Now, all these men are gone from the earth.  So are my media colleagues Michael Collins Piper and Pastor Dale Crowley.  I am still here.  There are times I wonder why this is the case.  In that context, Paul informs us of the mysterious character of the sovereignty of the Triune God in all things in Romans 11: 33-34:

O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!

 For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counselor?

     In these days and nights, the passage of time in linear redemptive history prior to the return of our Lord Jesus Christ seems to be increasingly relentless in its incessant and accelerating speed in my own life.  I am reminded of this daily in terms of my present existence in an America totally unlike the country of my departed youth, now a place of current and future exile.  The departure of Bruce Fields in recent days, and the passages of Stephen Wiest, John Eppler, an entire generation of Trinity professors from another time and place, and my own Father 11 years ago, underscore this sense of increasing foreboding and alienation, the brevity of life, the need to use time well, and to be prepared to meet the Lord when He calls us.  In the Psalm of Moses, Psalm 90, we read as follows (KJV):

Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations.

Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God.

Thou turnest man to destruction; and sayest, Return, ye children of men.

For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.

Thou carriest them away as with a flood; they are as a sleep: in the morning they are like grass which groweth up.

In the morning it flourisheth, and groweth up; in the evening it is cut down, and withereth.

For we are consumed by thine anger, and by thy wrath are we troubled.

Thou hast set our iniquities before thee, our secret sins in the light of thy countenance.

For all our days are passed away in thy wrath: we spend our years as a tale that is told.

The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labor and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away.

Who knoweth the power of thine anger? even according to thy fear, so is thy wrath.

So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.

Return, O Lord, how long? and let it repent thee concerning thy servants.

O satisfy us early with thy mercy; that we may rejoice and be glad all our days.

Make us glad according to the days wherein thou hast afflicted us, and the years wherein we have seen evil.

Let thy work appear unto thy servants, and thy glory unto their children.

And let the beauty of the Lord our God be upon us: and establish thou the work of our hands upon us; yea, the work of our hands establish thou it.

     Thus, those of us who confess Christ as Lord (Romans 10:9) now contemplate this very night the times and seasons of our dearly departed faithful warriors in the faith, the Bruce Fieldses and the Stephen Wiests of this fading epoch, even as we continue the good fight ourselves as faithful warriors trapped in an evil age until He returns.  In I John, the eschatological context comes to us with a sobering warning in chapter 2:18:

Little children, it is the last time: and as ye have heard that Antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last time.

     This is indeed, the last time.  Faithful warriors seem fewer in our midst.  Antichrists will continue to proliferate until the Antichrist himself makes his identifiable appearance in the flesh in time and cosmos (I John 2:18, 2 Thessalonians 2, Revelation 13). We must be ready with increasing need and desire for discernment and spiritual protection, even as we patiently wait for the end of the cosmos itself in time and the full establishment of the Kingdom of God in Heaven in Eternity (Revelation 22).

       In this present darkness, we salute Dr. Bruce Fields, Dr. Stephen Wiest, and the other aforementioned departed faithful washed in the blood of the Lamb.  They were all faithful unto death. In the nocturnal darkness, the Lord Jesus Christ reminds us of this through his message via John to the Church of Smyrna in Asia Minor during the reign of Domitian (A. D. 81-96):

Do not be afraid of what you are about to suffer. I tell you, the devil will put some of you in prison to test you, and you will suffer persecution for ten days. Be faithful, even to the point of death, and I will give you life as your victor’s crown.

Whoever has ears, let them hear what the Spirit says to the churches. The one who is victorious will not be hurt at all by the second death.

     It is even at the very door.  We shall all, in Christ, escape the second death.

 

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Night Thoughts

 

 

The Evil of The Empire is no Longer Concealed by Its Captains and Kings: The COVID-19 Sanctions on Iran

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Mark Dankof’s rooftop view of the Elburz Mountains north of Tehran in another lifetime.

     The evil of the American Empire and its long-standing alliance with the Zionism and Globalism of the New World Order is nothing new to me. After all, I’ve spent a lot of time broadcasting for RBN, Rense Radio, and the Andrew Carrington Hitchcock “Generations” show on these matters for an awfully long time. Since 9-11, I’ve also been a quasi-regular on Iran’s Press TV, even as I have been writing on this same dreadful subject for the American Free Press, Don Wassall’s The Nationalist Times, SARTRE’s BATR News, the Tasnim News Agency, the Fars News Agency, and Russia Insider.

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Syria: Assad and Putin have checked the advance of the New World Order as the Zio-American Empire becomes desperate and recklessly dangerous.

 

     All these years in my Night Thoughts, certain articles come back to me in the wee hours when sleep is sometimes elusive. Kourosh Ziabari’s interview with me on 9-11 is one; a second is my treatise on FDR and Pearl Harbor. A few years ago, the late Michael Collins Piper really loved my essay on a dying America entitled “Why We’re Finished.” Another of more recent vintage is my work for Russia Insider and Russian Faith on Christian Martyrdom, the American Empire, and the New World Order. As I contemplate these, my tribute to the late Marquis J. McCants, and my observations about the American Empire at the time of the death of Chris Kyle, the so-called American Sniper come flooding back as well.

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Bringing the humanity of Iran into focus: Do Trump, Pompeo, Mnuchin, and Dubowitz really want to eradicate such people?

     Two events since the advent of the New Year make all of this older paper trail seem like a millennium ago. The first is the extra judicial assassination of General Qassem Soleimani on January 3rd. The second is the proliferation of the COVID-19 virus globally, and the appalling American maintenance and intensification of sanctions on Iran in its devastating wake. Two articles which best contextualize the latter tragedy are those of Kevin Barrett for the Unz Review and Philip Giraldi for the same. Giraldi argues effectively that these sanctions on Iran constitute “crimes against humanity.” Without plagiarizing, I coincidentally chose the same words in a recent brief interview for Press TV.

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The demonic countenance of Mark Dubowitz, Israel’s front man at the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies.

     Perhaps the most revealing example of the Israeli-driven role in these American crimes against Iran is one Mark Dubowitz of the Israeli-linked Foundation for the Defense of Democracies (FDD). Again, Kevin Barrett and Philip Giraldi provide the context and the analysis necessary in our understanding that American crimes against humanity are largely those driven by the Zionist juggernaut. Democracy in this Orwellian world is defined as anything that the Israeli government wants, and what the Israeli Lobby wants both in Palestine and the Middle East generally, as well as in the American domestic scene and globally. Syria, Venezuela, Ukraine, and Russia are immediately added to the mix. 

     The end game is World Government ruled by the Beast who sits on his throne in the 3rd Temple. The Apostle Paul outlines this aspect of the eschatological context of these events in 2 Thessalonians 2. The proclamation reported recently in Israel National News underscores the increasing speed with which these events are transpiring.  Yes, it will happen, but with a far different outcome from that envisioned by the Zionist settler and Temple movements in Israel and their “Christian” Zionist allies driven by the prophetic school of thought known as Dispensationalism,

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Another human face attached to Zio-COVID-19 sanctions on Iran. The death of a 25 year old nurse on the front lines without proper equipment and supplies.

     As I stated at the beginning, Zio American Empire crimes are not new. What is new is that the unapologetically public character of these crimes without even resorting to the shopworn doctrine of “plausible deniability” has reached a new level of outrageousness. In the case of Iran, the crime of the assassination of General Soleimani, has now mushroomed into the attempt to achieve Zio-Regime Change in Iran via mass murder. Dr. Trita Parsi pointedly asks on Twitter, “What kind of a person looks at a country suffering from a pandemic and thinks ‘This is the time to bomb them’?  Answer: Mike Pompeo.”

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The Final Zio-Solution for Iran if COVID-19 Sanctions Fail?

     Our short term call to action on behalf of the Iranian people seems anemic but doable. Call the White House, your Senators, your Congressional Representative and the State Department. Join 80 Hours for 80 Million immediately and post it to everyone you know via social media. Tag all your social media correspondence on this matter with #EndCovidSanctionsNow. And keep after the known faces of the Zio Establishment on this issue. Tag them with their earned responsibility for this human tragedy. The ADL, the FDD, and AIPAC are but a few to target.

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     On a longer term basis, the warnings to the American people of Ron Paul and John W. Whitehead of the Rutherford Institute are apropos. The Zio Establishment is using COVID-19 as their opportunity for their biggest power grabs since the Kennedy Assassination and 9-11. The police state is here. It is advancing daily. Be aware. Be vigilant.

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     But the good news is this: The COVID-19 virus is stressing out the Zio American Empire to the virtual breaking point. Mark Dubowitz speaks of using COVID-19 as the weapon against Iran achieving what sanctions before now have not. He and his ilk fail to see that this is a dagger aimed at their entire criminal enterprise.

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Who needs a caption for this one?

     The fraud of economic outsourcing, evidenced by the American pharmaceutical industry presently housed in China, is a threat to the national security of the United States, even as Iran is not. The fraud of demographic manipulation, open borders, MSM Fake News, stock market bubbles, gun confiscation, worthless Zio Wars and a burgeoning national debt are becoming increasingly obvious to victimized Americans and Europeans.

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Press TV’s Serena Shim was a Lebanese-American assassinated by the Erdogan regime, with the silence of her own government deafening.

     And when the dots are connected, people will rise up against the Beast and put him out of business. Greater Israel will be finished; the Fed and Central Banking will be finished; Zio Wars will have run out of manpower, money, and ideological enthusiasts. Sovereign nation states will return in history; and the American Republic will arise from the ashes of the Evil Empire.

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     As I said in my promo for the RBN show on NBR scheduled for 1 pm Central Time today, the enemy of the Iranian people is the enemy of the American people and their once vibrant Constitutional Republic. Take note, the Pompeos and Dubowitzes of the world. Your days are numbered. You have been weighed and found wanting. Your end is assured.

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The Crucified and Risen Christ is Victorious Over Satanic Powers and Principalities Operating Through World Governments. (Ephesians 6)

 

Postscript: Minutes after this posting was completed, I learned from Press TV and the UK Guardian of the horrific detention of Iranian-American Dr. Sirous Asgari at an ICE facility in Alexandria, Louisiana after being acquitted of all federal charges in a court of law related to alleged stealing of trade secrets while a professor at a university in Ohio. Read these links. As I have said, a criminally oriented government abroad is the government next to visit its vile acts upon its own citizens at home.

 

 

 

 

Mark Dankof Book Review: THE IRANIANS: PERSIA, ISLAM, AND THE SOUL OF A NATION (1996) by Sandra Mackey

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A small portion of Mark Dankof’s library on Iran.

Read the rest of this entry »

Mark Dankof Reminds Bernie Sanders of The Kosher Slaughter and The Silent Scream

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       Mark Dankof to Friends and Fans: Not surprisingly, Senator Bernie Sanders called today for a codification of the 1973 Roe v Wade decision and a massive increase in money for Planned Parenthood. Without hysteria or rancor, I re-post for his benefit and yours the article of Jayne Gardiner entitled Abortion: The Kosher Slaughter.

     I am also posting a link to The Silent Scream, the work of Jewish physician and NARAL founder, Dr. Bernard Nathanson, whose conversation to faith in Jesus Christ resulted in the re-dedication of the remainder of his life to the protection of unborn life, and his own plea for forgiveness for the horror of the American Holocaust he had helped create and enact.

      I also have a message for Christians today: I’m pro-life, which means not only protecting the unborn, but stopping the American National Security Establishment from its own Kosher Slaughter of innocents in the unspeakable Wars for Israel which do not simply threaten the lives of innocents in the Middle East, but of American kids who are present and future Cannon Fodder for the American Empire and Greater Israel, and everyone else on Earth. 

 

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Abortion: The Kosher Slaughter by Jayne Gardiner (Text):

Who drives the abortion industry in the United States? Want to hazard a guess?

If you said that the main movers and shakers behind the pro-abortion movement in the U.S. are Jews, you win the grand prize.

While there are, of course, pro-life Jews who are disturbed by the abortion rates in both the United States and Israel, I would venture to say that they are certainly in the minority, especially in the U.S. Their low regard for Gentile life at any stage of development is reflected in the number of abortions performed by Jewish doctors (about half of all abortion providers are Jewish) in Jewish owned “women’s clinics” (about a half of all such clinics are owned by Jews) which is way out of proportion when you consider what a small percentage of our population Jews comprise.

Various people have commented publicly about the disproportionate number of Jews in the abortion rights movement. For instance, Kenneth Mitzner, founder of an organization entitled The Pro-life League Against Neo-Hitlerism said:

“It is tragic but demonstrably true that most of the leaders of the pro-abortion movement are of Jewish extraction.”

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The Nathanson Witness

First, let’s take a look at the Talmudic view on abortion. The Mishnah, comprising the first part of the Talmud, provides a source for understanding the Jewish position which assumes that life arises only at birth which is when they believe that ensoulment takes place. So long as the fetus, or the most important part of it, its head, has not come out into the world, it is not called nefresh (a human soul) and therefore an unborn fetus is not to be considered a living being until birth.

The old testament, in Exodus 21:22-23 shows us that the Jews did not regard unborn lives as human beings as reflected in the laws during that period:

“If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman’s husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.”

Literally and by interpretation, this passage poses the basic legal principal that the destruction of the fetus is not to be considered punishable murder. Death of the unborn child is punishable by fine only, and capital punishment does not apply. Only if the mother is harmed, i.e. killed, does the law of capital punishment take effect.

Clearly, the Jewish Talmudic view on abortion is a disturbing one since if a fetus is not considered a living being until birth it can only mean that Talmudic Jews would have no problem with abortion at any stage of gestation for any reason, up until birth. It is unarguable that a fetus is a living being and it is abhorrent to think that pro-abortion Jews would be fine with the destruction of a healthy, viable fetus no matter how late in pregnancy the abortion would take place.

Abortion has pretty wide support among Jews in this country and various Jewish organizations in the U.S. are openly and unashamedly pro abortion, organizations such as:

American Jewish Committee
American Jewish Congress
B’nai B’rith Women
Central Conference of American Rabbis [Reform]
Federation of Reconstructionist Congregations
Hadassah Women
Jewish Labor Committee
Na’amat USA
National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods [Reform]
National Council of Jewish Women
New Jewish Agenda
North American Temple Youth
Rabbinical Assembly Union of American Hebrew Congregations [Reform]
United Synagogues of America [Conservative]
Women’s League for Conservative Judaism

Many Jewish doctors as well as non-professional men and women are vastly overrepresented among American proponents of abortion on demand. Here is but a partial list:

All four original organizers of the most influential group of abortion pushers in the United States — the National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL) — were of Jewish birth

Dr. Christopher Tietze worked for the Population Institute and International Planned Parenthood Federation, and did more to promote the worldwide slaughter of innocent unborn children than any other person.

Dr. Alan Guttmacher was president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America for more than a decade, founded Planned Parenthood Physicians, and did more than any other doctor to promote abortion in this country. He also advocated mandatory abortion and sterilization for certain groups in the United States.

Dr. Etienne-Emile Baulieu, inventor of the RU-486 abortion pill, was born in 1926 to a physician named Leon Blum. He changed his name in 1942.

Stanford professor Paul Ehrlich is the ‘father’ of the overpopulation myth. His ‘work,’ The Population Bomb, was the ’spark’ that ignited the anti-natalist movement.

Lawrence Lader, (New York University professor and co-founder of NARAL) king of the abortion propagandists, has written several books crammed with fabrications and outright lies that have helped advance abortion all around the world… Lader was quoted 11 times in Roe v. Wade, because he had a message that the Justices wanted to hear. (In the same decision, testimony from the world’s leading fetologist, Dr. A. W. Liley, was totally ignored because it decisively undercut the Court’s decision)… Lader also founded Abortion Rights Mobilization (ARM), which sued the Internal Revenue Service in court in a failed attempt to get the tax-exempt status of the Catholic Church revoked for opposing abortion too effectively. He also was one of the leading proponents of the abortion pill RU-486.”

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The above mentioned Dr. Christopher Tietze, who died some years ago has left a legacy, albeit a somewhat distressing one. There is a Dr. Tietze Humanitarian Award from the National Abortion Federation which is awarded to doctors in the abortion industry for their contributions to, and advancement of, quality care in the abortion field.

Of course it isn’t only Jewish members of the medical profession leading the way. They have certainly been aided and abetted in their morbid cause by various legislators, especially state senators Anthony Bielenson in California and Albert Blumenthal in New York who were the leading proponents of legalized abortion in their respective states and in this country.

It is certainly a fact that there are other left wing organizations who are ardent supporters of abortion on demand which have large Jewish involvement, namely The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), which has opposed most proposed bills to restrict access to abortion and Norman Lear’s organization, The People For The American Way, which stands firmly on the pro-abortion side.

Not surprisingly, even the Anti-Defamation League sits squarely and firmly on the pro-abortion side of the issue. On April 19th of 2007, the ADL publicly voiced its disappointment that the Supreme Court of the United States ruled to uphold the federal Partial Birth Abortion Act by saying:

“We are deeply troubled by the ramifications of the Supreme Court’s ruling on abortion. By upholding, for the first time, an abortion statute which contains no exception for the health of the woman, the Supreme Court has undermined a woman’s right to choose and to act in accordance with her conscience and the dictates of her faith. We continue to believe that Americans should have the freedom to make difficult decisions of conscience and health without government interference.”

Abortion rights have pretty much become the litmus test for being an elected Democratic representative in this country as evidenced by the pro-abortion stance of Catholics like Sen. Ted Kennedy and others. “Of the 41 Jewish-born members of the U.S. Senate over the last 20 years, 32 (or 80 percent) have been stridently pro-abortion.” [8]

The radical feminist movement, headed by Jewish women like Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan, has been a staunch driving force behind the pro-abortion movement since its inception. Their disdain for families and imagined female oppression by men in this country and their belief that gender roles are a social construct and not innate has caused them to push for abortion as being the great equalizer, liberating women from their ‘oppressive’ role as mothers.

Simone Weil, former French health minister and Auschwitz survivor who led the drive to legalize abortion in France was quoted as saying: “We are out to destroy the family. The best way to do that is by attacking it’s weakest member, the unborn child.”

Kate Michaelman is another example. For many years, Michelman, president of Naral Prochoice America from 1985 to 2004, has been at the forefront of one of this country’s most contentious and divisive debates. Ever since Roe Vs Wade, NARAL Pro-Choice America, boasting in excess of one million members and supporters, has been the nation’s leading advocate for a “woman’s right to choose.”

NARAL actively supports the election of pro-abortion candidates through various political action committees. They are heavily invested in lobbying Congress to fight any anti-abortion legislation as well as supporting bills which would protect abortion rights and expand women’s access to “reproductive health care.”

The Lichter-Rothman (both Jewish by the way) study was officially suppressed and one can well imagine why. It’s information regarding members of the media and their proabortion stance was staggering, but not surprising. It’s findings?

“Leaders of the motion picture industry: 95% pro-abortion, 62% Jewish:
Leaders of the television industry: 97% pro-abortion, 59% Jewish:
Leaders of the news media industry: 90% pro-abortion, 23% Jewish.”

Jewish groups are constantly involved in fund-raising efforts to keep abortion rights in the forefront, spending tens of millions of dollars to ensure that abortion remains legal. On February 28th, 1989, The American Jewish Congress ran a full page ad in the New York Times entitled Abortion And The Sacredness Of Lifewhich cost them a staggering $30,000.

Securing the right to kill unborn children comes with a high price tag.

The press often gives pro-abortion Jews considerable coverage as well as considerable leeway. When Dr. Barnett Slepian (an abortion provider who was later shot to death by an anti-abortion activist) slugged a pro-life demonstrator over the head with a baseball bat (causing serious injury) for daring to picket his home, they not only demonstrated a double standard by excusing his behavior, they also claimed that he was targeted for picketing because he was Jewish and therefore the actions by pro-life proponents were anti-Semitic.

Marilynn Buckham, an abortion clinic owner told the Buffalo News that the picketing of Slepian’s home was nothing short of religious persecution and attacked Christians for not respecting other people’s relgious beliefs. As a result of Slepian’s assault trial, the picketing of abortion provider’s homes in New York state was declared unlawful and subject to a $500.00 fine and 6 months imprisonment.

In Canada, the leading proponent of abortion is Dr. Henry Morgentaler, another concentration camp survivor who became one of Canada’s most proficient, prolific and notorious abortion providers who flaunted Canadian law and established illegal clinics in Canada where he performed abortions in direct opposition to Canadian law and for which security was provided by Canadian police. Morgentaler was once quoted as saying: “It took me years to get rid of this image [of myself helpless in the concentration camps]. And to do that, it was absolutely necessary to oppose authority — whatever the authority may be.”

It is a sad reality that Morgentaler has become somewhat of an icon in Canada, a man who is revered as being a champion for the rights of women. In 2005, Henry Morgentaler, at that time 82 years old, was given an honorary doctorate in law by the University of Western Ontario. Morgentaler spoke before the audience, saying he shared in the celebration of those receiving their degrees and told them that he believed that his work to make abortions safe and legal has “benefited society”, urging the graduates to stand up for their rights. Polls show that the vast majority of Canadians are pro-abortion and certainly many Canadians hold that view largely due to Henry Morgentaler’s influence.

 

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And there you have it. Although it is absolutely factual that there is considerable gentile involvement in the abortion industry in this country there is certainly a disproportionate representation of Jews as proponents of abortion rights as well as Jews accounting for about half of all abortion providers and clinic owners; a staggering fact considering that Jews in this country comprise only about 2% of the population.

And why is this the case? Because they hate Gentiles and promote our destruction by any means at their disposal. Obviously there are Jews who oppose abortion but there are certainly many who not only condone it but push for it. And they not only push for it in the early stages of pregnancy but a lot of them have no qualms about abortions performed at any stage of pregnancy for reasons not encompassed by maternal risk or gross fetal abnormality. They are fine with it at any time for any reason.

It is just another part of the Jewish supremacist agenda to destroy their enemy, the Goyim (Gentiles or Non-Jews), no matter what they must do to secure our destruction. We are what stands in the way of the successful achievement of their agenda.

They must be opposed. While I do not call for an outright ban on abortion, I do think that abortion on demand has become a national tragedy, leading to the destruction of close to one million American unborn children a year, some at stages where the fetus is clearly healthy, viable and could be safely delivered.

While I am not a believer in the notion that women abort ” 5 minutes before birth,” as some pro-life advocates have claimed during debate, I do know from personal experience that many people in the pro-choice/pro-abortion movement would certainly and unequivocally be okay with that, should it be legal. As the mother of two children I find that immensely unsettling.

A compassionate society based on Christian traditions cannot, in my opinion, enact laws that create unreasonable risk or hardship for women

Who drives the abortion industry in the United States? Want to hazard a guess?

If you said that the main movers and shakers behind the pro-abortion movement in the U.S. are Jews, you win the grand prize.

While there are, of course, pro-life Jews who are disturbed by the abortion rates in both the United States and Israel, I would venture to say that they are certainly in the minority, especially in the U.S. Their low regard for Gentile life at any stage of development is reflected in the number of abortions performed by Jewish doctors (about half of all abortion providers are Jewish) in Jewish owned “women’s clinics” (about a half of all such clinics are owned by Jews) which is way out of proportion when you consider what a small percentage of our population Jews comprise.

Various people have commented publicly about the disproportionate number of Jews in the abortion rights movement. For instance, Kenneth Mitzner, founder of an organization entitled The Pro-life League Against Neo-Hitlerism said:

“It is tragic but demonstrably true that most of the leaders of the pro-abortion movement are of Jewish extraction.”

First, let’s take a look at the Talmudic view on abortion. The Mishnah, comprising the first part of the Talmud, provides a source for understanding the Jewish position which assumes that life arises only at birth which is when they believe that ensoulment takes place. So long as the fetus, or the most important part of it, its head, has not come out into the world, it is not called nefresh (a human soul) and therefore an unborn fetus is not to be considered a living being until birth.

 

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The old testament, in Exodus 21:22-23 shows us that the Jews did not regard unborn lives as human beings as reflected in the laws during that period:

“If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman’s husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.”

Literally and by interpretation, this passage poses the basic legal principal that the destruction of the fetus is not to be considered punishable murder. Death of the unborn child is punishable by fine only, and capital punishment does not apply. Only if the mother is harmed, i.e. killed, does the law of capital punishment take effect.

Clearly, the Jewish Talmudic view on abortion is a disturbing one since if a fetus is not considered a living being until birth it can only mean that Talmudic Jews would have no problem with abortion at any stage of gestation for any reason, up until birth. It is unarguable that a fetus is a living being and it is abhorrent to think that pro-abortion Jews would be fine with the destruction of a healthy, viable fetus no matter how late in pregnancy the abortion would take place.

Abortion has pretty wide support among Jews in this country and various Jewish organizations in the U.S. are openly and unashamedly pro abortion, organizations such as:

American Jewish Committee
American Jewish Congress
B’nai B’rith Women
Central Conference of American Rabbis [Reform]
Federation of Reconstructionist Congregations
Hadassah Women
Jewish Labor Committee
Na’amat USA
National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods [Reform]
National Council of Jewish Women
New Jewish Agenda
North American Temple Youth
Rabbinical Assembly Union of American Hebrew Congregations [Reform]
United Synagogues of America [Conservative]
Women’s League for Conservative Judaism

Many Jewish doctors as well as non-professional men and women are vastly overrepresented among American proponents of abortion on demand. Here is but a partial list:

All four original organizers of the most influential group of abortion pushers in the United States — the National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL) — were of Jewish birth

Dr. Christopher Tietze worked for the Population Institute and International Planned Parenthood Federation, and did more to promote the worldwide slaughter of innocent unborn children than any other person.

Dr. Alan Guttmacher was president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America for more than a decade, founded Planned Parenthood Physicians, and did more than any other doctor to promote abortion in this country. He also advocated mandatory abortion and sterilization for certain groups in the United States.

Dr. Etienne-Emile Baulieu, inventor of the RU-486 abortion pill, was born in 1926 to a physician named Leon Blum. He changed his name in 1942.

Stanford professor Paul Ehrlich is the ‘father’ of the overpopulation myth. His ‘work,’ The Population Bomb, was the ’spark’ that ignited the anti-natalist movement.

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Lawrence Lader, (New York University professor and co-founder of NARAL) king of the abortion propagandists, has written several books crammed with fabrications and outright lies that have helped advance abortion all around the world… Lader was quoted 11 times in Roe v. Wade, because he had a message that the Justices wanted to hear. (In the same decision, testimony from the world’s leading fetologist, Dr. A. W. Liley, was totally ignored because it decisively undercut the Court’s decision)… Lader also founded Abortion Rights Mobilization (ARM), which sued the Internal Revenue Service in court in a failed attempt to get the tax-exempt status of the Catholic Church revoked for opposing abortion too effectively. He also was one of the leading proponents of the abortion pill RU-486.”

The above mentioned Dr. Christopher Tietze, who died some years ago has left a legacy, albeit a somewhat distressing one. There is a Dr. Tietze Humanitarian Award from the National Abortion Federation which is awarded to doctors in the abortion industry for their contributions to, and advancement of, quality care in the abortion field.

Of course it isn’t only Jewish members of the medical profession leading the way. They have certainly been aided and abetted in their morbid cause by various legislators, especially state senators Anthony Bielenson in California and Albert Blumenthal in New York who were the leading proponents of legalized abortion in their respective states and in this country.

It is certainly a fact that there are other left wing organizations who are ardent supporters of abortion on demand which have large Jewish involvement, namely The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), which has opposed most proposed bills to restrict access to abortion and Norman Lear’s organization, The People For The American Way, which stands firmly on the pro-abortion side.

Not surprisingly, even the Anti-Defamation League sits squarely and firmly on the pro-abortion side of the issue. On April 19th of 2007, the ADL publicly voiced its disappointment that the Supreme Court of the United States ruled to uphold the federal Partial Birth Abortion Act by saying:

“We are deeply troubled by the ramifications of the Supreme Court’s ruling on abortion. By upholding, for the first time, an abortion statute which contains no exception for the health of the woman, the Supreme Court has undermined a woman’s right to choose and to act in accordance with her conscience and the dictates of her faith. We continue to believe that Americans should have the freedom to make difficult decisions of conscience and health without government interference.”

Abortion rights have pretty much become the litmus test for being an elected Democratic representative in this country as evidenced by the pro-abortion stance of Catholics like Sen. Ted Kennedy and others. “Of the 41 Jewish-born members of the U.S. Senate over the last 20 years, 32 (or 80 percent) have been stridently pro-abortion.” [8]

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The radical feminist movement, headed by Jewish women like Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan, has been a staunch driving force behind the pro-abortion movement since its inception. Their disdain for families and imagined female oppression by men in this country and their belief that gender roles are a social construct and not innate has caused them to push for abortion as being the great equalizer, liberating women from their ‘oppressive’ role as mothers.

Simone Weil, former French health minister and Auschwitz survivor who led the drive to legalize abortion in France was quoted as saying: “We are out to destroy the family. The best way to do that is by attacking it’s weakest member, the unborn child.”

Kate Michaelman is another example. For many years, Michelman, president of Naral Prochoice America from 1985 to 2004, has been at the forefront of one of this country’s most contentious and divisive debates. Ever since Roe Vs Wade, NARAL Pro-Choice America, boasting in excess of one million members and supporters, has been the nation’s leading advocate for a “woman’s right to choose.”

NARAL actively supports the election of pro-abortion candidates through various political action committees. They are heavily invested in lobbying Congress to fight any anti-abortion legislation as well as supporting bills which would protect abortion rights and expand women’s access to “reproductive health care.”

The Lichter-Rothman (both Jewish by the way) study was officially suppressed and one can well imagine why. It’s information regarding members of the media and their proabortion stance was staggering, but not surprising. It’s findings?

“Leaders of the motion picture industry: 95% pro-abortion, 62% Jewish:
Leaders of the television industry: 97% pro-abortion, 59% Jewish:
Leaders of the news media industry: 90% pro-abortion, 23% Jewish.”

Jewish groups are constantly involved in fund-raising efforts to keep abortion rights in the forefront, spending tens of millions of dollars to ensure that abortion remains legal. On February 28th, 1989, The American Jewish Congress ran a full page ad in the New York Times entitled Abortion And The Sacredness Of Lifewhich cost them a staggering $30,000.

Securing the right to kill unborn children comes with a high price tag.

The press often gives pro-abortion Jews considerable coverage as well as considerable leeway. When Dr. Barnett Slepian (an abortion provider who was later shot to death by an anti-abortion activist) slugged a pro-life demonstrator over the head with a baseball bat (causing serious injury) for daring to picket his home, they not only demonstrated a double standard by excusing his behavior, they also claimed that he was targeted for picketing because he was Jewish and therefore the actions by pro-life proponents were anti-Semitic.

Marilynn Buckham, an abortion clinic owner told the Buffalo News that the picketing of Slepian’s home was nothing short of religious persecution and attacked Christians for not respecting other people’s relgious beliefs. As a result of Slepian’s assault trial, the picketing of abortion provider’s homes in New York state was declared unlawful and subject to a $500.00 fine and 6 months imprisonment.

In Canada, the leading proponent of abortion is Dr. Henry Morgentaler, another concentration camp survivor who became one of Canada’s most proficient, prolific and notorious abortion providers who flaunted Canadian law and established illegal clinics in Canada where he performed abortions in direct opposition to Canadian law and for which security was provided by Canadian police. Morgentaler was once quoted as saying: “It took me years to get rid of this image [of myself helpless in the concentration camps]. And to do that, it was absolutely necessary to oppose authority — whatever the authority may be.”

 

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It is a sad reality that Morgentaler has become somewhat of an icon in Canada, a man who is revered as being a champion for the rights of women. In 2005, Henry Morgentaler, at that time 82 years old, was given an honorary doctorate in law by the University of Western Ontario. Morgentaler spoke before the audience, saying he shared in the celebration of those receiving their degrees and told them that he believed that his work to make abortions safe and legal has “benefited society”, urging the graduates to stand up for their rights. Polls show that the vast majority of Canadians are pro-abortion and certainly many Canadians hold that view largely due to Henry Morgentaler’s influence.

And there you have it. Although it is absolutely factual that there is considerable gentile involvement in the abortion industry in this country there is certainly a disproportionate representation of Jews as proponents of abortion rights as well as Jews accounting for about half of all abortion providers and clinic owners; a staggering fact considering that Jews in this country comprise only about 2% of the population.

And why is this the case? Because they hate Gentiles and promote our destruction by any means at their disposal. Obviously there are Jews who oppose abortion but there are certainly many who not only condone it but push for it. And they not only push for it in the early stages of pregnancy but a lot of them have no qualms about abortions performed at any stage of pregnancy for reasons not encompassed by maternal risk or gross fetal abnormality. They are fine with it at any time for any reason.

It is just another part of the Jewish supremacist agenda to destroy their enemy, the Goyim (Gentiles or Non-Jews), no matter what they must do to secure our destruction. We are what stands in the way of the successful achievement of their agenda.

They must be opposed. While I do not call for an outright ban on abortion, I do think that abortion on demand has become a national tragedy, leading to the destruction of close to one million American unborn children a year, some at stages where the fetus is clearly healthy, viable and could be safely delivered.

While I am not a believer in the notion that women abort ” 5 minutes before birth,” as some pro-life advocates have claimed during debate, I do know from personal experience that many people in the pro-choice/pro-abortion movement would certainly and unequivocally be okay with that, should it be legal. As the mother of two children I find that immensely unsettling.

A compassionate society based on Christian traditions cannot, in my opinion, enact laws that create unreasonable risk or hardship for women but we must balance the needs of women with a respect for the lives of the unborn, especially in the later stages of pregnancy.

To not protect them at that point is unconscionable.

we must balance the needs of women with a respect for the lives of the unborn, especially in the later stages of pregnancy.

To not protect them at that point is unconscionable.

 

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Historical Critique of Dispensationalism, Zionism, and Daniel’s Prophecy of 70 Weeks

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    Any historical analysis and consideration of the Dispensational perspective on prophecy must take into account the paramount importance of the “Prophecy of Seventy Weeks” in Daniel 9: 24-27, particularly the 19th century historical developments which facilitated the creation of the “gap” or “parenthesis” theory between the 69th week and an allegedly futuristic 70th week; the recency of the doctrine of the pre-Tribulation rapture before the onset of the 70th week [1] ; and the derivative idea of the bifurcation of the coming of Jesus Christ into two stages, one involving His return for the saints before the Great Tribulation, the second involving His return with His saints after the expiration of the 70th week.

     After due consideration of these topics, the practical outworking of the “parenthesis” theory and the two-stage coming of Christ in Dispensational piety and action will be examined historically, both in terms of the 19th century and the 20th. [2]   Of special significance is the Dispensational religious/political alliance with the modern State of Israel and political Zionism, a development which has had profound impact on much of modern Protestant Evangelicalism’s understanding of the Kingdom and the role of the Church in political alliances and activism based on an eschatological belief system.

     The Dispensational position on Daniel 9 must first be understood in contrast to the two (2) other major exegetical schools of thought on the passage which have developed in history.  The first of these is the Maccabean; the second is the Traditional.  The former position is often associated with higher biblical critical assumptions about the dating and interpretation of the prophecy specifically, and the book of Daniel generally.  The Dispensationalist Emerson writes [3] : If Daniel were written 165 B. C. or thereabouts, how could a literary and religious writer have achieved complete anonymity among a people suffering persecution when any encouragement alleged to come from Jehovah would have been like a ray of light on a dark night?  If such a book achieved its purpose, someone (its author or its alleged discover) must certainly come to popular attention.  The Maccabees were not in the least anonymous.  Therefore why would the author of Daniel be, if he professed to have discovered a prophecy or to have written one?  We might ask ourselves what kind of a book should we expect from the exile period.  The two books of the Maccabees would be the types of books one naturally would expect to come out of the great persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes.  But Daniel shows sufficient evidence of belonging to the Babylonian Exile.  It has been rightly said: “If the Exile has that importance in relation to the development as already described, then the whole progressive development of the divine revelation as it lies before us in the Old and New Testaments, warrants such as are found in the book of Daniel.  Since miracles and prophecies essentially belong not only in general to the realization of the divine plan of salvation but have also been especially manifested in all the critical periods of the history of the kingdom of God neither the miracles in the historical parts of the book nor its prophecies, consisting of singular predictions, can in any respect seem strange to us.” [Emerson quoting C. F Keil, Bible Commentary on the Book of Daniel, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, p. 20]

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     As we compare First Maccabees with the book of Daniel, we have in the former, the kind of book that embodies most of the elements that the book of Daniel should have had, had it been written in the Maccabean period.  To be more specific, Daniel should have been anti-Hellenic and shown zeal for the temple and temple worship and a holy indignation for those profaning it.  The book should have been full of zeal for the law and denunciation of those not so zealous.  First Maccabees is full of Palestinian places, names, local color and glorification of the Hasmonean exploits.  This we do not find in Daniel.  Even Montgomery [Emerson quoting J. A. Montgomery.  The Book of Daniel.  ICC Series.  Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1926, p. 90] says, “Further the historical background of these chapters is Babylonian.  Again their sumptuous barbaric scenery is obviously not that of Palestine:  one need only compare the arid scenery of the later chapters.”  Since 400 years had elapsed between the Babylon of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign and the Babylon of the Maccabean period, conditions utterly different had come into being with reference to the whole city and area.  The city had lost its preeminent position and was under Greek control.  What a wonderful research staff and what a wonderful source library the pseudo Daniel must have had.  He seems to have avoided the pitfalls into which Herodotus fell only a century after the events about which he wrote. How could the Jewish high priest in 332 B. C. have shown Alexander the Great the prophecy of Daniel as pertaining to his own conquests when, according to the theory, the book was not (to have been) written for another 164 years?  Josephus could hardly have imagined the dream that Alexander related to the high priest.  How also do we explain Jerusalem’s escape from destruction after its refusal to surrender?  And how do we explain its switch in loyalty from a nearly monotheistic Persia under which the Jewish people had peace, prosperity and governmental friendliness, to a polytheistic Macedonia? How could a book with such uncertain antecedents have ever become a part of the Canon of Scripture?

     It was not the Jewish custom to select the canonical books carelessly or at random [Emerson quoting Edersheim, The Life and Times of the Messiah, New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1931, Volume 2, App. 5].  Even though Daniel is listed in the “writings” rather than in the “prophets”, we have no record of any hesitancy of including his book in the sacred Scripture until the time of Porphyry (233-304 A. D.).  It was the Jewish belief and criterion that all Scripture had a prophetic authorship. If the Maccabean authorship and the date of 165 B. C. for Daniel are rejected, when was it written?  If we were to accept the internal evidence aside from the evident familiarity of the author with the life and time of Nebuchadnezzar, we have two hints in the book itself.  The first chapter ends with the words, “And Daniel continued even unto the first year of King Cyrus.”  If this is to be taken at face value, this chapter at least, may have been written 537-536 B. C.; i. e., in the first year of Cyrus.  On the other hand, Daniel’s final vision (Daniel 10: 1) dates the vision in the third year of Cyrus; that is 534-533 B. C., which would also be the dating of the last three chapters since they all are a part of the same vision.  The problem would thus be simple if we could be sure that all of the remaining chapters were written in the intervening two years.  We note that each chapter has a unity of style–in fact, all of the chapters together have a unity of style that would suggest that they were at least taken from notes put down on the spot at the time of the occurrence.  Since these were all written under inspiration and since the Holy Spirit brings to our minds not only from our own human experience but beyond our experience the things which he wills, there is nothing to prevent our dating the actual writing from 537-533 B. C.  After all, if John could write another apocalypse during a comparatively brief stay on Patmos, Daniel might well have written his prophecy in what could have been the last few years of his life.  Both books are the product of a long walk with God, and both are swan songs.

     The non-Dispensational scholars, R. K. Harrison and E. J. Young, also take issue with the higher Biblical criticism and late dating approach of the Maccabean school of interpretation.  Harrison notes the seminal role of Porphyry (3rd century A. D.) in denying a 6th century date for Daniel, and assigning to it the time of Antiochus Epiphanes.  Harrison also underscores the anti-supernaturalistic assumptions of the neo-Platonic philosopher, who “. . .  commenced his reasoning from the a priori assumption that there could be no predictive element in prophecy, so that the work could only be historical in nature, and therefore of a late date.  This formidable heathen antagonist of the Christian faith maintained that the author of Daniel had lied in order to revive the hopes of contemporary Jews in the midst of their adversities. . . .  The German literary-critical movement seized avidly upon the supposition that the prophecy could contain no predictive element, and repudiated the Jewish and Christian tradition of a sixth-century B. C. date of composition for the book. . . .  At the outset it has to be stated that there can be no question whatever as to the influence that the views of Porphyry exercised over the minds of scholars who denied a predictive element to Hebrew prophecy.  For them, prophecy consisted in forth telling rather than foretelling, so that any aspect of the latter could have no place in true prophecy.” [4]   Young agrees with this specifically [5] where the dating of the entire book of Daniel is concerned, as well as in the case of the “Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks” in chapter 9. [6]

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     Thus, both Dispensational and non-Dispensational evangelical scholars dismiss the Maccabean school of interpretation of Daniel 9 as rooted in a presuppositional anti-supernaturalism which either distorts or ignores internal evidences which point to the unity of the entire book under the authorship of the 6th century prophet.  The higher critics, who almost uniformly adhere to the interpretation, assert their position with equal vehemence: This chapter [chapter 9 of Daniel] consists, not of a symbolic vision, as in chs. 7-8, but of a revelation made directly by an angel.  In answer to Daniel’s prayer for a solution to the problem of why Jeremiah’s prophecy of a restoration of Israel after 70 years has not been fulfilled, the angel Gabriel explains to him that the prophecy means 70 weeks of years–i. e., 7 times 70 years.  Moreover, Gabriel divides these 490 years into three very unequal periods of 49, 434, and 7 years, respectively.  Because the writer’s calculations are only approximate and his historical references not always clear, there is still some difference of opinion in interpreting certain details in Gabriel’s explanation.  But practically all exegetes now agree that the 490 years terminate in the end of Antiochus IV Epiphanes’ persecution; the once common opinion that saw in vv. 26-27 a reference to the death of Jesus Christ is now abandoned by almost all exegetes [emphasis mine]. [7]

     The Catholic exegete, Hartmann, provides an excellent synopsis of the Maccabean summary of the prophecy. [8]   He translates the “Seventy Weeks” as “seventy Sabbatical periods.”  The change from the 70 years of Jeremiah to 7 times 70 years is based not only on the fact that Israel’s lack of complete repentance merited this sevenfold punishment (Lv. 26: 34-35) but also on 2 Chr. 36: 21, where Jeremiah’s prophecy is connected with the Sabbatical years spoken of in Lv. 26: 34-35.  Verse 24, for Hartmann, involves a brief summary of the whole period of 490 years.  If reckoned at its longest, from the time that Jeremiah first spoke his prophecy (605) to the end of Antiochus IV Epiphanes’ persecution (164), this period would be “only 441 years.  But the writerwho no doubt knew little of the chronology of the early post-exilic period, would not be disturbed by this discrepancy between his symbolic numbers and the historical facts.” [9] [emphasis mine].  Hartmann indicates that the reference to the “most holy will be anointed” almost certainly refers to the consecration by Judas Maccabeus of the restored Holy of Holies in the Jerusalem Temple, although he acknowledges that the Church Fathers often applied it to Jesus, “the Anointed One.” [10]   In verses 25-27, the three main periods of the 490 years are acknowledged to exist.  Hartmann takes the reference to the anointed one of verse 25 as “probably” Cyrus the Great; less likely as Zerubbabel or the high priest Joshua.  “Only if one reckons from the second utterance of Jeremiah’s prophecy (ca. 595) to the anointing of Cyrus as king of Persia (558–a date the writer of Dn 9 would hardly know!) could the required 49 years be approximately obtained.  But the following words imply that the first period extends to the beginning of the rebuilding of Jerusalem, which would embrace much more than seven weeks of years.” [11] [emphasis mine] He then indicates that the 62 weeks of years, or 434 years, allowed for the rebuilding of Jerusalem are “too many by far; from 538-171 (the next date) is only 367 years.” [12] [emphasis mine] In verse 26, Hartmann assigns to the “anointed shall be cut down”, the historical referent of the deposed high priest, Onias III, and his murder in Antioch in 171 B. C., thus his failure to possess the city of Jerusalem.  Also in verse 26, “the people of a leader” is linked to the Syrian army of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, which plundered the Jerusalem Temple in 169 and 167.  The phrase, “for one week” in verse 27 is the period after Onias’ death (170-163), with the accompanying theory that the writer of the chapter was writing a few months before the persecution ended in December, 164.  The “firm pact with the many” is allegedly Antiochus IV Epiphanes’ alliance with renegade Jews who favored the Hellenization of their culture.

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     “‘Half the week” is for Hartmann, the second half of the seven year period beginning in 170, although he insists that the Temple desecration actually lasted only three years–from December, 167, to December, 164. Young and O. T. Allis, comprising the best of what Reiter calls the “Princeton-Westminster tradition,” [13] offer an interpretation of the prophecy which simultaneously rejects higher critical anti-supernaturalism while affirming the historical fulfillment of the 70th week in the events surrounding the first advent of Jesus Christ.  These respective schemas are representative of the Traditionalist, or what Reiter would term the Historicist school of interpretation. [14] 

     Allis deals most extensively with Daniel 9: 24-27 in Prophecy and the Church, chapter five, entitled, “Old Testament Prophecies Concerning the Kingdom,” where he begins by stating: The effect produced on the interpretation of prophecy by the “parenthesis” doctrine of the Church as set forth by Dispensationalists is one of the clearest proofs of the novelty of that doctrine as well as of its revolutionary nature.  In 1835 an article appeared in the Christian Witness, the earliest organ of the Brethren, in which the claim was made that all of the prophecies of Daniel are still unfulfilled, that they do not relate to the Church age but are to be fulfilled in the future kingdom age.  At the time this article was written the view was generally held that the Christian Church or dispensation was the great theme of Old Testament prophecy.  Today in Dispensational circles it is regarded as axiomatic that the Church is completely ignored by the prophets.  Consequently, the prophets have a very important role in deciding the issues raised by Dispensationalism.  And since the Dispensational doctrine that the Church was unknown to them was first applied to the Book of Daniel, we shall confine ourselves largely to it in testing the correctness of this method of interpreting the prophecies of the Old Testament. [15]

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     Allis continues by saying that the importance of the “Prophecy of 70 Weeks” in Dispensational teaching can: hardly be exaggerated.  It is often appealed to as the conspicuous proof that the entire Church Age is a parenthesis in the prophetic program which is to be discovered between vvs. 26 and 27 of Dan. ix. . .  Since Dispensationalists hold that the prophecy of the Seventy Weeks is directly Messianic, it is not necessary for us to discuss the various anti-Messianic interpretations that have been proposed.  Our concern is to defend the form of the Messianic interpretation which has been called the “traditional” one because it has been so widely accepted, and to show its superiority over this “parenthesis” interpretation, the discovery of which has furnished, so Dispensationalists tell us, the key to the interpretation of prophecy. [16]

     Allis begins his summation of the Traditional perspective by acknowledging the points of agreement with Dispensationalism, chiefly that the seventy weeks represent weeks of years, a total of 490 years; that only one period of weeks is described, as is proved by the fact that the subdivisions (7+62+1) when added together give a total of 70; that the “anointed one, the prince” of verse 25 and the “anointed one” of verse 26 are the same person, the Messiah; and that the first 69 weeks or 483 years had their terminus in the period of the first advent–their fulfillment is long past. [17]   He then focuses on the two chief differences between the Traditional and Dispensational schools of interpretation.  First, the question of whether or not the great events described in vs. 24 have been fulfilled, or are yet future; second, the issue of whether or not the 70th week is past or future. [18]   Dispensationalists take the futurist perspective on both questions, a development Reiter freely acknowledges to be of 19th century origin.  The latter locates the genesis of the futuristic position on Daniel’s 70th week to a time just subsequent to the introduction of the futuristic approach to the Apocalypse in 1826 by Samuel R. Maitland. [19]   John Nelson Darby, the central figure in Brethrenism and “founder of dispensationalism,” then advanced the position that a “gap existed between the sixty-ninth and seventieth weeks, with the result that the seventieth week is still future.” [20]

     Allis’ presentation of the “Traditional” interpretation begins on page 113 of Prophecy and is as follows.  First, that according to the view, all of the great transactions referred to in vs. 24 are to be regarded as having been fulfilled at the first advent and, more specifically, in what is to be regarded as the “climactic event of the prophecy, the redemption at Calvary, which is referred to literally in verse 26 and figuratively in vs. 27.” [21]   The words, “to finish transgression and to make an end of (or seal up) sins and to make reconciliation for iniquity” are to be regarded as referring to that atonement for sin which was accomplished once and for all on the Cross.  This interpretation is in accord with many New Testament statements, e. g., Heb. x. 12-14.  Thus Allis reminds us that Paul says that: . . .  Jesus has “abolished death.” (2 Tim. 1. 10).  Death was a very real thing to Paul.  He was living under its shadow, when he wrote these words to Timothy.  But the fear of death and the power of death had been destroyed, because Christ had brought life and immortality to light through the Gospel.  For Paul, death was indeed “abolished.”  Sin is, likewise, very much alive; it is very active in the world.  But sin was finally dealt with (“made an end of”) and reconciliation brought about through the death of Christ, His passive obedience as a sufferer for sin.  It only remains that the benefits of that finished work be applied to all those for whom it was performed.  The same applies to the three other matters referred to in this verse.  An “everlasting righteousness” was provided for all the redeemed through the active obedience of Christ, His perfect keeping of the law of God.  Prophecy was “sealed,” i. e., authenticated in a unique way by the life and death and resurrection and ascension of Christ; and prophetic gifts ceased in the Christian Church with the close of the apostolic age.  The “anointing of a most holy” may refer either to a person or to a place.  If to a person, the reference may be to the descent of the Holy Spirit on Jesus to fit Him for His Messianic work (Lk.  iii.22; iv. 18); if to a place, it may refer to the entrance of the risen Christ into heaven itself, when “through his own blood he entered once for all into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption” (Heb.  ix.  12) for all His elect.

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Under an Armenian Sky.

     In a word we have in vs. 24 the prophecy of the “satisfaction of Christ,” of His obedience and sufferings, by virtue of which the sinner obtains forgiveness and acceptance with God. According to this view, the 69th week ended with the beginning of the ministry of John the Baptist and the baptism of Jesus; and the 70th week followed immediately upon it.  Consequently, the “cutting off” of the Anointed One which occurred, “after the threescore and two weeks” must be regarded as having taken place in the 70th week; and a reference to it is to be found in the words, “In the midst [half] of the week, he [the Messiah] shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease.”  That Christ by His death put an end to the Jewish ritual of sacrifice, substituting for bulls and goats “a sacrifice of nobler name and richer blood than they,” is the great argument of the Epistle to the Hebrews.  So interpreted, it is the Messiah who makes firm or confirms the covenant for the one (the 70th) week;  and the crucifixion which takes place in the midst of it is the great event of that week and may be regarded as the climax of the entire prophecy. [22]

     Allis admits that the Traditional interpretive scheme is not without problems, simply that the problems posed are far less exegetically and historically problematic than those posited by the Dispensationalist grid.  He does concede that one difficulty resides in the fact that the Traditional interpretation does not clearly define the “terminus of the 70th week.” [23]   If “in the midst” is taken in its natural sense to refer to a half week, or 3 ½ years, the latter 3 ½ years must be accounted for.[24]   Allis regards as “possible” [25] the options that either the last half refers to the period of the founding of the Church and the preaching of the Gospel exclusively to the Jews, a period ending with or about the time of the martyrdom of Stephen; or that the time in question was “graciously extended to some 35 years, to the date of the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, a reference to which is found in vs. 26.” [26]   His main point continues to be that if Calvary took place “in the midst of the week,” there can be “no interval between the 69th and the 70th weeks.” [27] 

     It is to be noted that the scheme of E. J. Young, another Traditionalist, is not without its mathematical problems.  In a summation which coincides with that of Allis, Young notes: The traditional Messianic interpretation entails less [emphasis mine] difficulty than do the others and at the same time does justice to the language of the text.  Upon this view the seventy sevens serve as a symbolical number for the period that has been decreed for the accomplishment of the Messianic salvation (v. 24).  In v. 25 we are taught that two segments of time elapse from the issuing of a word from God to rebuild Jerusalem until the appearance of Christ.  After these two segments have elapsed, the Messiah will be cut off by death and Jerusalem and the Temple will be destroyed by the Roman armies of Titus.  The Messiah, however, will cause the Jewish sacrifice to cease by means of His death, and He will do this in the midst of the seventieth seven.  As a consequence, the Temple will be destroyed, and the destruction will continue until the end appears which has been appointed by God.  The precise point of termination of the period of seventy sevens is not revealed.  The emphasis, rather, is not so much upon the beginning and termination of this period as it is upon the great results which the period has been set apart to accomplish. [emphasis mine] [28]

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Mark Dankof photo of a Sunset in the Western Sky in South Texas.

     Finally then, must come a summation of the basic position of the best representatives of the Dispensational “gap” or “parenthesis” theory regarding Daniel 9: 24-27.  These representatives include modern exegetes John Walvoord, [29]Leon Wood, [30] Herman Hoyt, [31]   Paul Feinberg, [32] and Charles Ryrie, [33] as well as the classic, older Dispensational scholars, including Sir Robert Anderson, [34] Arno C. Gaebelein, [35] William Blackstone[36] and William Bell Riley. [37]   In summation, the basic outline of the Dispensational interpretation of the passage, beginning with Darby, is as follows–first, in contrast to the Traditional perspective, verses 24 and 27 are deemed to be future in their fulfillment. [38]   The “Prophecy of 70 Weeks” is part of the division of Daniel’s book (chapters 7-12) that records visions of future earthly kingdoms, both human and divine. [39]   J. Randall Price [40] continues the summary of the Dispensational position by mentioning the six restoration goals [41] of 9: 24, which are outlined by the remainder of chapter 9, in terms of events which will unfold in Israel’s subsequent history.  As Price notes, Dispensationalism joins with most Christian scholarship in holding that the seventy weeks are to be interpreted as seventy weeks of years; the resulting period of 490 years (70 x  7) is divided, according to the text (vv. 25-27), as periods of seven weeks (49 years), sixty-two weeks (434 years), and one week (7 years).  Dispensationalism is also in agreement with most evangelical scholarship in interpreting the context of the passage as messianic, with the coming of Messiah taking place after the sixty-nine weeks. [42] 

     What follows with Price is the crux of the Dispensational view of the passage: However, dispensationalism (classical) is distinct in its interpretation of Daniel’s Seventieth Week (v. 27) as future.  With Israel’s rejection of the Messiah and His death taking place after the sixty-ninth week (v. 26), the completion of the six restoration goals for Israel (v. 24) is left for the Seventieth Week.  If the Seventieth Week immediately succeeds the sixty-ninth week historically, then the expected restoration must be applied spiritually to the church as a new Israel [emphasis mine]. Because dispensationalism adheres to the principle of literal interpretation and recognizes the scriptural distinction between God’s program for Israel and for the church, it understands the historical completion of Israel’s restoration must take place in a future week [emphasis mine].  During this time (as described in v. 27), there is a resumption of the messianic program for Israel with the overthrow of the Antichrist (the apocalyptic prerequisite to the establishment of the messianic kingdom).  This interpretation requires [emphasis mine] a prophetic postponement [emphasis mine] (older writers referred to this as a gap or parenthesis [emphasis mine]) between the events of verses 26 and 27.  The revelation of a prophetic postponement in the fulfillment of the eschatological aspect of the messianic program is in harmony with numerous passages in the Old Testament [emphasis mine] that reveal the two [emphasis mine] advents of Christ [numerous passages cited]. . .  The six restoration goals of Daniel’s seventy-weeks prophecy (v. 24) may have a near fulfillment in the experience of the nation (Messiah’s redemptive advent) but must wait for its complete fulfillment in the future (Messiah’s restorative advent [emphasis mine]).

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The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood, St. Petersburg, Russia.

     The postponement understood between verses 26 and 27 is the consequence of partial and complete fulfillment in the messianic program.  The first phase of the messianic program accomplished spiritual redemption for ethnic Israel in the First Advent (Matthew 1: 21; cf. Luke 2: 11).  National rejection of Messiah (Matt. 23: 37; cf. Acts 3: 13-15, 17; 4: 25-27), while fulfilling the promise of Gentile inclusion (Acts 15: 14-18; Rom. 11: 11, 25, 30), necessitated a second phase of the messianic program to apply spiritual redemption to Israel nationally (Acts 3: 18-21; Rom. 11: 26-29, 31) and complete the promise of national restoration (Matt. 23: 39; Acts 1: 6-7; 3: 22-26; 15: 16), which will be fulfilled at the Second Advent (Zech. 12: 10-13: 2; 14: 3-11).  The dispensational view depends on the validity of interpreting the Seventieth Week eschatologically [emphasis mine]. [43]

     This then, is the summation of the Dispensationalist exegesis of the passage.  In a review of different commentators in the literature, there are minor revisions and differences in emphasis, but the basic adherence to the parenthesis theory and the futuristic fulfillment of the 70th week is absolute.  One variance worth mentioning is the occasional difference over the dating of the beginning of the prophecy.  Most of the Dispensational commentators begin the 70 weeks at either 458 or 444 B. C. (Nehemiah 2), utilizing one of two decrees of an Achaemenid king of Persia to the Jews as the commencement of the allotted time for the unfolding of events in Israel’s prophetic program.  Occasionally, one will see reference to 538 B. C. as the commencement (Cyrus’ decree), but this is rare in comparison to the other two beginning points noted.

     What then, are the historical considerations presented by the Dispensational system, with particular reference to the futuristic view of Daniel 9, and the way in which 1 Thessalonians 4; 2 Thessalonians 2, the Olivet Discourse, and Revelation 4-22 are woven around it?  It would seem that the initial paramount consideration would be the establishment of the genesis of the position in history; secondarily would be an examination of the way in which the Dispensational system has impacted American Evangelicalism, particularly in its understanding of the Kingdom, its historical pessimism about society and the Church, and the fascinating, often paradoxical character of the political/religious link it has forged with modern Zionism and the State of Israel.

     What are the sources, in terms of individuals and historical epochs, which enable the Dispensational theories of a parenthesis Church, a pre or mid-Tribulational Rapture, a Great Tribulation corresponding to Daniel’s 70th week, and a two stage coming of Christ, to be traced to their provable origins?  The absolute answers to these questions are a matter of debate, but ongoing historical research provides some clues, the meaning of which is in dispute between adherents of the Dispensational system and its opponents.

     At a bare minimum, it can be reliably asserted that the Dispensational distinctives aforementioned are 19th century developments, a developing system of Biblical interpretation that was unknown in earlier epochs and especially in the early Church.  It is true that Dispensational adherents attempt to maintain that their system is a continuation of historic premillennialism [44] , yet Ladd maintains that, “For all practical purposes, we may consider that this movement–for dispensationalism has had such wide influence that it must be called a movement–had its source with Darby and Kelly.” [45]    Robert Cameron  in 1896, had reacted with some others in the Niagara Bible Conference to some of the dispensational elements, blaming the movement completely on the Darbyists, saying that they had introduced “a theory absolutely without a single advocate in the history of the Church, from Polycarp down.” [46]   Timothy Weber, whose work, Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming–American Premillennialism 1825-1982, is probably the most definitive historical appraisal of Dispensationalism since C. Norman Kraus’ 1958 book, Dispensationalism in America, agrees that futurism made its way into the English-speaking world in the early nineteenth century, with Darby its most creative innovator in the development of the Dispensational distinctives which subsequently received further refinement from such contributors as James Brookes and C. I. Scofield.  Interestingly enough, Weber traces the modern futurist movement to a Jesuit named Ribers, who proposed as early as 1590 that the prophecies concerning Antichrist would not be fulfilled until the very end of the church age, all in an attempt to undermine the Protestant claims that the papacy was in fact the Antichrist. [47]

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Armenian Christians in Iran await the Savior’s return.

     This late 16th century historical source for futurism made a contribution uniquely suited to the gifts of Darby in his seminal development of the classic Dispensational system, first in the British Isles, then through his travels to the United States in post Civil War America, where the distinctives of the system received further refinement and promulgation in the 19th century American prophecy conferences, which both Weber and Kraus provide historical documentation of.  19th century America was in the midst of radical shifts in its culture, economy, and political structure subsequent to the Civil War.  Historicism had suffered a setback through the date-setting disaster of William Miller, a Baptist preacher from Vermont, who had calculated a foolproof arrival date for Jesus Christ of October 22, 1844.  Miller and his followers became the “laughing stocks” of American Evangelicalism when Christ failed to appear. [48]   The “Great Disappointment” resulted in the Millerite formation of the Seventh-Day Adventists, many of whom wrote off the rest of Protestantism and Roman Catholicism as the great whore of biblical prophecy (Rev. 17). [49] 

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     By 1845, Premillennialism had fallen on hard times through Miller’s catastrophic mistake–yet by 1875 had rebounded in a new form called Dispensationalism, which held that no “last days” prophecy will be fulfilled until just before the return of Jesus Christ; which rejected the historicists’ “year-day theory” for dating prophetic events, and the idea that the Papacy was the Biblical Antichrist.  As Weber notes, the Dispensational denial that the prophecies were intended for the Church Age as a whole, served to relieve them of the “dangerous and often embarrassing task of matching biblical predictions with current events, and the task of setting dates for the second coming.” [50]   Weber adds that a key distinctive in the new system was the conviction that God has two completely different plans operating in history, one for an earthly people (Israel) and one for a heavenly people (the church).  “Rightly dividing the Word of Truth,”came to mean, in particular the maintenance of the distinction between the two people of God. [51]   C. H. Mackintosh, whose popularizations of Darby’s theology sold well in the United States, gave a clear exposition of the new, novel idea of the “parenthesis” or “gap” theory based on Daniel 9 to the 19th century faithful.[52] 

     Weber seizes upon the emerging radical implications and derivatives of this idea: In essence this meant that the Christian church had no prophecies of its own.  It occupied a mysterious, prophetic time warp, a “great parenthesis,” which had no place in God’s original plans.  . . .  This perspective left dispensationalists, to say nothing of the church, in a difficult position.  According to their reasoning, the church is in the world but can lay claim to none of the prophecies of future earthly events.  As we have already seen, dispensationalists blushed at the thought of assigning earthly prophecies to God’s heavenly people.  Furthermore, as every dispensationalist knew, the Bible bulged with predictions of future events. Daniel’s seventieth week, postponed for the time being, must occur sometime.  This time of trouble, called the great tribulation by all pre-millennialists, was described in great detail in Revelation and other places (e. g. Matt. 24 and II Thess. 2).  To complicate matters even further, dispensationalists believed that God was unwilling or unable to deal with his two peoples or operate his two plans at the same time.

     Consequently, it seemed necessary to remove the church [emphasis mine] before God could proceed with his final plans for Israel.  This rather difficult problem was easily solved by dispensationalism’s most controversial and distinctive doctrine–the secret, pretribulational rapture of the church [emphasis mine]. . . .  Up to the early 1830’s it seems that all futurist premillennialists had seen the rapture in conjunction with the second coming of Christ at the end of the tribulation.  But dispensationalists, taking their cues from the creative teaching of John Darby, separated them.  At the rapture, they said, Christ will come for his saints, and at the second coming, he will come with his saints.  Between these two events will occur the tribulation, which dispensationalists equated with Daniel’s seventieth week and the reign of Antichrist.  In this way the church will be removed from the scene so that God can resume his prophetic countdown and his dealings with Israel. [53] 

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     The charge that a preconceived ecclesiology was forcing novel exegetical schemes and conclusions upon Daniel 9 and other Biblical texts proved irresistable to opponents of Dispensationalism.  Incredibly, some of its adherents, including John Walvoord, have agreed that the bifurcation of Israel and the Church is even more important than eschatology itself. Richard Reiter writes: Additional evidence for the importance of the doctrine of the church came from the vigorous and capable presentation of pretribulationism carried on throughout the early 1950s by John F. Walvoord, president of Dallas Theological Seminary, in Bibliotheca Sacra.  Published in 1957 as The Rapture Question, the series of essays that preceded The Blessed Hope by Ladd in 1956 picked up and answered Ladd’s criticisms along with those of earlier posttribulationists.  Walvoord clearly established that “the rapture question is determined more by ecclesiology than eschatology” for the definition of “church” and “the doctrine of the church is. . . determinative in the question of  whether the church will go through the tribulation” [Reiter quoting Walvoord, The Rapture Question page 50]. [54]

     This line of analysis mirrors Darby himself, who claimed that the doctrine [of the pre- Tribulational rapture] “virtually jumped out of the pages of Scripture once he accepted and consistently maintained the distinction between Israel and the Church.” [55]   He writes: It is this conviction, that the Church is properly heavenly in its calling and relationship with Christ, forming no part of the course of events of the earth, which makes its rapture so simple and clear; and on the other hand, it shows how the denial of its rapture brings down the Church to an earthly position, and destroys its whole spiritual character and position.  Prophecy does not relate to heaven.  The Christian’s hope is not a prophetic subject at all. [56]

     Kraus duly notes the prior importance of the ecclesiology issue for Darby, noting that, “It was not until several years after his break with the Anglican Church in 1827 that he became specifically interested in prophecy.  His interest in this subject is at least second handedly traceable to the Albury Conferences, out of which grew the Irvingite movement.” [57]   Kraus also quotes James Bear as indicating that the Albury Conferences, and the subsequent Powerscourt House conferences, were the traceable location and genesis of the Dispensational distinctives, where the “truths of the distinctive nature of the Church and the ‘rapture’ were discovered, which led to the development of a new complex of ideas which we know today as ‘Dispensationalism.’” [58] When the significance of Darby’s trips to Canada in 1859, 1864, and 1866, and his trips to the United States in 1870, 1872-1873, and 1874 are duly noted, [59] it is clear that Kraus is correct in demonstrating that all of the key figures in American Dispensational thought were merely repristinating and further developing and systematizing the basic ecclesiology and eschatology of Darby himself: Even a casual review of these outlines and explanations makes it clear that the American writers were influenced by Darby.  Their outlines are essentially repetitions; at best they are variations on a theme.  The differences in the outlines grow out of the relative emphasis placed on the definition of a dispensation as a historical or theological concept.  In each case a dispensation is a combination of both elements, the theological superimposed upon the historical.  However, dispensationalism is basically theological rather than historical in its orientation.  It is not primarily an attempt to trace the rise and fall of political, social, or religious movements in the passage of time.  It is, rather, a philosophy of history–an attempt to interpret history according to a theological norm.  Thus the differences which appear in the outlines are not essential, but are merely individual applications of the accepted dispensational norm.  When this point is clearly recognized it is immediately apparent what Darby’s relation is to those who follow.  He expounded the norm. [60]

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A Western Sunset in Texas:  Mark Dankof photo during an evening walk thinking of the Second Coming of Christ.

     These American writers included S. H. Cox (1793-1880), Henry M. Parsons (1828-1913), the Christian Zionist William E. Blackstone (1841-1935), A. J. Frost, James Hall Brookes (1830-1897) who is termed by Kraus the “outstanding leader of the Bible conference movement from 1875 to the time of his death,” [61] and G. Campbell Morgan (1864-1945).[62]   These names were accompanied by pulpit presences influenced by Darbyism which included A. J. Gordon at the Clarendon Street Baptist Church in Boston; D. L. Moody in Chicago; and of course, Brookes himself at the Walnut Street Presbyterian Church in St. Louis. [63]   Kraus notes the significance as well, of the early division in the Plymouth Brethren movement over Darby’s Dispensational distinctives, coming chiefly from Benjamin Wills Newton (1805-1898) and Samuel Prideaux Tregelles (1813-1875), who became increasingly marginalized in Darby’s takeover of the mainstream of the movement, and in the latter’s exportation of the distinctives to a waiting American audience: Early in the Brethren movement two viewpoints concerning eschatology emerged. As Darby developed his dispensational concepts he met with opposition within his own group.  Benjamin Wills Newton (1805-1898) and the great textual scholar, Samuel Prideaux Tregelles (1813-1875), disagreed with his dispensational distinctions.  George Muller who had joined the Plymouth Brethren in 1830 also felt, as he told Robert Cameron, that he had to make a choice between Mr. Darby and the Bible, and that he had chosen the Bible. But it was the “exclusive Brethren” under the leadership of Darby that made the initial contacts in America [emphasis mine].  Probably the two most popular writers, and the widest read by American ministers, were William Trotter and Charles Henry Macintosh, although the writings of William Kelly and Darby also circulated widely.  Until about 1880 the literature of Tregelles, Newton, and George Muller had very little influence upon the Bible conference movement; and when it did become known it did not turn the tide of dispensationalism [emphasis mine]. [64]

     Thus, a historical line of development in the development and promulgation of Dispensational Distinctives may legitimately be drawn from Darby and his “exclusive Brethren” to his most distinguished 19th century exponents, including Brookes, Trotter, Macintosh, and Blackstone; subsequently to C. I. Scofield and his most significant editor for his early 20thcentury Scofield Reference Bible, Arno C. Gaebelein; [65] later to the more recent responsible refinements of the Dispensational system through the work of Lewis Sperry Chafer, Charles Ryrie, and John Walvoord; and finally to the Sensational Dispensationalism of Hal Lindsey and the Late Great Planet Earth in 1970, whose 18 million copies in sales popularized a position whose lineage is traceable to the Irishman Darby and his disenchantment with the Anglican communion.  In all of these writers, the futuristic 70th week of Daniel, the two-stage coming of Christ, and the secret, “at any moment” pre-Tribulational Rapture predominate, in the interest of maintaining the Church/Israel dichotomy.

     But is there any conclusive historical evidence for how or where Darby received his inspiration for the doctrine of the pre-Tribulational Rapture of the Church?  According to Weber, “historians are still trying to determine how or where Darby got it.” [66]   Darby’s opponent, Tregelles, charged that the idea originated in about 1832 during an ecstatic utterance in the congregation of Edward Irving, where the charismatic gifts of the Spirit were alleged to have been poured out. [67]   Weber remarks that: A newer though still not totally convincing view contends that the doctrine initially appeared in a prophetic vision of Margaret Macdonald, who was a teenager from Glasgow, Scotland, in the early part of 1830. According to some recently discovered (and confusing) manuscripts, Miss Macdonald claimed special insight into the second coming and may have even advocated a pretribulation rapture of the church.  Shortly after her vision of the end, Margaret began speaking in tongues and became, along with other members of her family, one of the main attractions of a charismatic type of revival in western Scotland.  Deeply disturbed by the reports of a new Pentecost, the Plymouth Brethren commissioned Darby to investigate.  He arrived in the middle of 1830 and, according to his own testimony twenty-three years later, actually met and heard Miss Macdonald.  According to recent theory, Darby returned home totally against the so-called outpouring of the Spirit, but borrowed Margaret Macdonald’s view of the rapture, modifying it at a number of points and fitting it into his system, without ever acknowledging his debt to her. [68]

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God’s peace in Iran.

     The riposte between Dave MacPherson [69] and John Walvoord is apropos here.  MacPherson, in the Great Rapture Hoax, states definitively that Margaret MacDonald’s revolutionary revelation of a two-stage Second Coming came to her as she studied various Scripture passages in the spring of 1830 in Port Glasgow, Scotland.  He develops this line of argument by claiming in Appendix A, entitled, “Margaret’s Revelation,” that: One of her unique thoughts was that the first stage (the Rapture) would take place before the revealing of the Antichrist–an idea that had never been heard of in Church history before she expressed it!  Not long after her revelation, she wrote down her account of everything and sent handwritten copies of it to a number of Christian leaders.  The Morning Watch, a leading British publication, quickly copied some of her distinctive notions.  Her revelation was first published in Robert Norton’s Memoirs of James and George Macdonald, of Port Glasgow (1840), pp.  171-176.  Norton published it again in The Restoration of Apostles and Prophets; In the Catholic Apostolic Church (1861), pp.  15-18. [70]

     MacPherson then reproduces the text of Macdonald’s “two-stage revelation” with numbered  lines of 1-117 for easy reference. [71]   He divides the 117 line revelation into three (3) basic divisions entitled, 1) Preparation for the Rapture [lines 1-60]; 2) The Revealing of Antichrist [lines 60-87]; and 3) General Exhortations [lines 87-117]. [72]   An extremely detailed and difficult analysis of the 117 lines follows on pages 133-180 of Hoax, where MacPherson draws certain conclusions about Darby based on a written communication of the latter allegedly penned in 1833: I trust many have been aroused since I have been here, and the Lord’s coming looked for by many, and some brought to peace.  We have also some very nice scripture reading meetings, to which any of the clergy who hold the truth, have fallen in, though quite mixed, and every one at liberty to speak.  It is chiefly, of course, on what may be called first principles, but I trust thorough ones practically.  It is a remarkable circumstance, that a dear young lady, who was instrumental in setting them afloat for me, and at several members of whose family they were held–who had been only called about a year by the Lord, but was very decided ever since–was suddenly called away the other day in the midst of it all.  The people in Limerick felt it a good deal, and I trust it may be the instrument of good to many.  The whole family, which was a principal one here, had been all thoroughly worldly a year ago, and herself and her sister at the head of all idleness. [MacPherson quoting Darby in Letters, vol. 1, p. 15) [73]

     MacPherson then concludes that: Why did Darby admit such things about a young Irish lady (written three years after Margaret’s revelation) and not give Margaret any credit for her prior Rapture?  Surely he must have known that sooner or later someone could discover the real Pre-Trib origin.  The answer, as I see it, is that Darby was a well-read, knowledgeable opportunist, one who had studied to be a lawyer.  He had been in Margaret’s home in mid-1830 and knew that her distinctive views had been picked up quickly by The Morning Watch and also by other Irvingites and his own Plymouth Brethren.  He knew that, in time, memories and personalities would fade away and that he could well be regarded as the Pre-Trib Rapture’s great systematizer and promoter, if not immediately its originator. [74]

     In appendix C of Hoax, MacPherson provides the complete text of a letter he penned to Dr. Robert H. Gundry of Westmont College in Santa Barbara, California.  Gundry, after receiving the letter dated January 21, 1980, allegedly changed his book The Church and the Tribulation, deleting his previous support for Edward Irving as the pre-Tribulation Rapture originator, and substituting MacPherson’s evidence about Margaret Macdonald as the historical explanation for the doctrine’s origin.  The corrected text appeared in Gundry’s sixth printing in December of 1980. [75]   In his letter to Gundry, MacPherson continues his conclusions about Darby: No one disputes the fact that modern Pre-Tribism can be traced back to John Darby.  In the Collected Writings of J. N. Darby, Vol.  II, p. 102, Darby claimed in an 1850 work of his that II Thessalonians 2: 1-2 was the passage that gave him a seal of approval for believing in Pre-Trib.

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     His statement follows: “It is this passage which, twenty years ago, made me understand the rapture of the saints before–perhaps a considerable time before–the day of the Lord (that is before the judgment of the living.”  Darby, unlike many of today’s Pre-Tribs, rightly held that the day of the Lord starts at the end of the Tribulation.  Note that in the early development of his Pre-Tribism Darby didn’t dogmatically see a big gap between the Rapture and the end of the Tribulation; he did say “considerable” (whatever that meant) but tied in that word with “perhaps.” Note also the reference to “twenty years ago”–which brings us back to 1830.  But was he figuring precisely or only approximately?  Where, in his 1830 writings, did he give evidence of such a doctrinal change-over?  In the Dec 1830 Christian Herald Darby’s article entitled, “On ‘Days’ Signifying ‘Years’ in Prophetic Language,” was a defense of historicism and the year-day theory, with not even a hint of a two-stage coming.  It should be remembered that Margaret was teaching a two-stage coming in the spring and summer of 1830, that the Irvingite journal I’ve already mentioned printed the same concept in its Sept 1830 issue, and that the Plymouth Brethren were preaching a two-stage coming in 1831.  Existing evidence indicates that Darby was clearly a Post-Trib prior to 1830 (as he indicated in his 1850 work), the earliest moment he could have derived it from anyone else (and I’m taking all available documentation into consideration) was when he visited Margaret in her home in Scotland in the middle of 1830. [76]

     Walvoord evaluates the MacPherson evidence in The Rapture Question [77] and The Blessed Hope and the Tribulation [78] citing five specific reasons for casting aspersion on the historical accuracy and motives of some of MacPherson’s sources, not to mention the latter’s conclusions that Darby definitively received any of his ideas or positions on the Rapture from Margaret Macdonald.  His points are cogently argued, and underscore Weber’s description of the manuscripts in question as “confusing.” [79]   What is more revealing, however, than Walvoord’s well crafted response to MacPherson, are the former’s admissions that: “One of the strongest arguments of the posttribulational view is the claim that pretribulationism is a new doctrine. . . .  He [Alexander Reese, The Approaching Advent of Christ, pp. 30-33] went on to trace the rise of pretribulationism.  “About 1830, however, a new school arose within the fold of Pre-millennialism that sought to overthrow what, since the Apostolic Age, have been considered by all pre-millennialists as established results, and to institute in their place a series of doctrines that had never been heard of before.  The school I refer to is that of ‘The Brethren’ or ‘Plymouth Brethren,’ founded by J. N. Darby.” . . .  The assertion that pretribulationism in its modern form can be traced to some extent [emphasis mine] to Darby is supported by Darby’s own writings.  In his search for premillennial truth, Darby arrived at the position that the church is a special work of God distinguished from His program for Israel.  This in turn led, to the position that the Rapture is a special event for the church itself. [80] [emphasis mine] . . .  The statement of Ladd [George Eldon Ladd] that pretribulationism until the nineteenth century is a half truth.  Pretribulationism as it is known today is comparatively recent [emphasis mine], but the concept of imminency of the Lord’s return–which is the important point–clearly dates to the early church[81] 

     So the recency of the Pre-Tribulational Rapture, the Two-Stage coming of Christ, and a futuristic view of the 70th week of Daniel would appear to be on solid ground historically, dating back to Darby and the 19th century, regardless of the question of the legitimacy of the evidence surrounding the Margaret Macdonald allegations by MacPherson.  Weber, in the course of his work, Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming–American Premillennialism 1825-1982, surveys other items of historical concern and significance in any survey of Dispensationalism.  These include the pivotal importance of the American Civil War and World War I in facilitating the societal turbulence and uncertainty which created fertile soil for the apocalyptic pessimism associated with Dispensationalism; the theological crisis created by German higher critical Biblical scholarship in the 19th and 20th centuries which saw Dispensationalism increasingly perceived as the “conservative” alternative to anti-supernaturalism and rationalism (a perception aided and abetted by the effective development of Dispensationally oriented publishing houses and the Dispensationally oriented Bible Institute movement); and the developing, often paradoxical, political alliance between modern Zionism and a Dispensationally oriented Protestant Evangelicalism.

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Mark Dankof in Moscow, Russia in October 1992.

     In this last regard, Weber’s October 5, 1998 Christianity Today article chronicles the amazing career of William E. Blackstone as the premier American Dispensationalist in energizing the Zionist-Dispensationalist alliance for the purpose of creating the modern State of Israel, an alliance made possible only by the Dispensationalist “postponement of the Kingdom for Israel” theory based on its exegesis of Daniel, chapter 9:

No American dispensationalist beat the drum for a Jewish state more than William E. Blackstone (1841-1935).  Born in New York and reared in an evangelical Methodist home, after the Civil War Blackstone settled in Oak Park, Illinois, and established himself as a successful businessman and lay evangelist to the Chicago business community.  He became a dispensationalist and a close friend of D. L. Moody.  In 1878, he published Jesus is Coming, which went through three editions, was translated into 42 languages, and was dispensationalism’s first bestseller in America. In the late 1880s, Blackstone visited new Jewish settlements in the Holy Land and returned to Chicago committed to helping the restoration of the Jews.  In 1890 he organized the first conference of Christians and Jews in Chicago and used the occasion to push for a new Jewish state.  Most participants, including the Jews, were not interested. Undeterred, in 1891 Blackstone drew up a petition (or “memorial”) advocating the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.  In short order, he collected 413 signatures from leading Americans, including the chief justice of the Supreme Court, the speaker of the House, the mayors of Chicago, New York, and Boston, and business leaders such as Cyrus McCormick, John D. Rockefeller, and J. Pierpont Morgan.  Blackstone forwarded the memorial to President Benjamin Harrison, who ignored it, and later he sent others to Teddy Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. In spite of his ongoing efforts to convert Jews to Christ, he became good friends with Zionist leaders and regularly sent them the results of his prophetic study.  In 1918, at a Zionist conference in Philadelphia, organizers hailed Blackstone as a “Father of Zionism”; and in 1956, on the seventy-fifth anniversary of his memorial to President Harrison, the citizens of Israel dedicated a forest in his honor. [82]

     The historical import of the Blackstone activities on behalf of the Zionist movement cannot be exaggerated, either for Israel or the Evangelical movement in America.  In the case of the latter, Blackstone set the foundation for the subsequent development of what Weber terms the “pro-Israel network,” [83] encompassing much of the televangelist community, including Jerry Falwell, John Hagee of Cornerstone Church in San Antonio, Texas, and Pat Robertson; the burgeoning number of pro-Zionist Evangelical para-church organizations, ranging from Jan Van Der Hoeven’s International Christian Embassy in Jerusalem, to the Tulsa based Bridges for Peace, the National Christian Leadership Conference for Israel (NCLCI), the Restoration Foundation of Atlanta, the Arkansas Institute of Holy Land Studies, and the First Fruits of Zion Ministries. [84]   Closer examination reveals the foundation of the Fundamentalist/Pentecostal political/religious network–the belief that the second coming of Jesus Christ is tied, eschatologically, to the reestablishment of a Jewish state in Palestine, and the resumption of Jewish control of the united city of Jerusalem.  As Weber states, “Obviously, the key to this entire prophetic plan is the re-founding of Israel as a nation state in Palestine.  Without Israel the whole plan falls apart. [85]

     The paradoxes of this alliance are legion. The cooperative relationship between Protestant Evangelicals of Dispensational ideology and Israel has muted the former’s criticism of the obvious political and financial links of the American Jewish lobby with many of the far political left’s most recognizable names, movements, and organizations, including the disturbing amount of Jewish money generated for the homosexual rights nexus, Planned Parenthood, the American Civil Liberties Union, and Norman Lear’s People for the American Way, the last of which underscores the acknowledged, but downplayed role of American Jews in the financial underpinning of the Hollywood establishment and culture.  Simultaneously, the American Israel Political Action Committee (AIPAC) and its disbursement of money for Presidential, Senatorial, and House campaigns reveals a similar curiosity–the contribution of cash to politicians across the ideological spectrum from port to starboard, ranging from Bella Abzug to Jesse Helms–politicians who share in some cases only one position in common–the desirability of maintaining a Jewish state in Palestine.

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     The Evangelical-Liberal alliance is not without its tensions.  Earlier in this decade, Abraham Foxman, the executive director of the Anti Defamation League of B’nai Brith, mailed a fund-raising letter to his national constituency, energizing their desire to contribute money by raising the red herring of the alleged threat to Jewish civil liberties and freedom in America inherent in the existence of the politically oriented Religious Right in America.  The letter specifically cited the threat to the homosexual rights movement and the continued legalization of abortion in America as definitively Jewish concerns.  It then proceeded to suggest that the appeal of televangelists like Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell–two of Israel’s biggest supporters within Evangelicalism–was suggestive of a latent, burgeoning anti-Semitism in the United States.  This amazing attack upon two of Protestant Evangelicalism’s biggest heavyweights in the pro-Israel network by Foxman, was considered sensational, ill-advised, and without historical context by many Evangelicals familiar with his communication.  The latter were amazed that the media access and popularity of The Old Time Gospel Hour and The 700 Club could possibly invoke images of hatred and anti-Semitic progroms.

     Behind Foxman’s visceral attack, however, could have lurked a historical context unfamiliar to most modern Evangelicals–the curious, tragic, ill-advised linkage of several prominent Dispensationalists in the early part of the 20th century with the benchmark of international anti-Semitism, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. [86]   The Protocols articulated an alleged international Jewish linkage and foundation for a global ideological, political program, which included the extermination of Christianity and the sponsorship of International Communism, particularly through the control of international finance and banking, the manipulation and overthrow of existing governments, and subversive utilization of the print media.

     The Jewish Student Online Research Center (JSOURCE)’s web site on the Protocols reveals the extent of the ongoing relevance of the Protocols for Jewish fears of an international resurgence of anti-Semitism and anti-Jewish violence.  Its synopsis of the Protocols states: The “Protocols of the Elders of Zion,” the most notorious and most successful work of modern antisemitism, draws on popular antisemitic notions which have their roots in medieval Europe from the time of the Crusades.  The libels that the Jews used blood of Christian children for the Feast of Passover, poisoned the wells and spread the plague were pretexts for the wholesale destruction of Jewish communities throughout Europe.  Tales were circulated among the masses of secret rabbinical conferences whose aim was to subjugate and exterminate the Christians, and motifs like these are found in early antisemitic literature. The conceptual inspiration for the Protocols can be traced back to the time of the French Revolution at the end of the 18th century.  At that time, a French Jesuit named Abbe Barruel, representing reactionary elements opposed to the revolution, published in 1797 a treatise blaming the Revolution on a secret conspiracy operating through the Order of Freemasons.  Barruel’s idea was nonsense, since the French nobility at the time was heavily Masonic, but he was influenced by a Scottish mathematician named Robison who was opposed to the Masons.  In his treatise, Barreul did not himself blame the Jews, who were emancipated as a result of the Revolution.  However, in 1806, Barruel circulated a forged letter, probably sent to him by members of the state police opposed to Napoleon Bonaparte’s liberal policy toward the Jews, calling attention to the alleged part of the Jews in the conspiracy he had earlier attributed to the Masons. This myth of an international Jewish conspiracy reappeared later on in 19th century Europe in places such as Germany and Poland. The direct predecessor of the Protocols can be found in the pamphlet, “Dialogues in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu,” published by the non-Jewish French satirist Maurice Joly in 1864.  In his “Dialogues,” which make no mention of the Jews, Joly attacked the political ambitions of the emperor Napoleon III using the imagery of a diabolical plot in Hell.  The “Dialogues” were caught by the French authorities soon after their publication and Joly was tried and sentenced to prison for his pamphlet.

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     Joly’s “Dialogues,” while intended as a political satire, soon fell into the hands of a German anti-Semite named Hermann Goedsche writing under the name of Sir John Retcliffe.  Goedsche was a postal clerk and a spy for the Prussian secret police.  He had been forced to leave the postal work due to his part in forging evidence in the prosecution against the Democratic leader Benedict Waldeck in 1849.  Goedsche adapted Joly’s “Dialogues” into a mythical tale of a Jewish conspiracy as part of a series of novels entitled, “Biarritz,” which appeared in 1868.  In a chapter called “The Jewish Cemetery in Prague and the Council of Representatives of the Twelve Tribes of Israel,” he spins the fantasy of a secret centennial rabbinical conference which meets at midnight and whose purpose is to review the past hundred years and to make plans for the next century.

     Goedsche’s plagiary of Joly’s “Dialogues” soon found its way to Russia.  It was translated into Russian in 1872, and a consolidation of the “Council of Representatives” under the name “Rabbi’s Speech” appeared in Russian in 1891.  These works no doubt furnished the Russian secret police (Okhrana) with a means with which to strengthen the position of the weak Czar Nicholas II and discredit the reforms of the liberals who sympathized with the Jews.  During the Dreyfus case of 1893-1895, agents of the Okhrana in Paris redacted the earlier works of Joly and Goedsche into a new edition which they called the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion.”  The manuscript of the Protocols was brought to Russia in 1895 and was printed privately in 1897. The Protocols did not become public until 1905, when Russia’s defeat in the Russo-Japanese War was followed by the Revolution in the same year, leading to the promulgation of a constitution and institution of the Duma.  In the wake of these events, the reactionary “Union of the Russian Nation” or Black Hundreds organization sought to incite popular feeling against the Jews, who they blamed for the Revolution and the Constitution.  To this end they used the Protocols, which was first published in a public edition by the mystic priest Sergius Nilus in 1905.  The Protocols were part of a propaganda campaign that accompanied the pogroms of 1905 inspired by the Okhrana.  A variant text of the Protocols was published by George Butmi in 1906 and again in 1907.  The edition of 1906 was found among the Czar’s collection, even though he had already recognized the work as a forgery.  In his later editions, Nilus claimed that the Protocols had been read secretly at the First Zionist Congress at Basle in 1897, while Butmi, in his edition, wrote that they had no connection with the new Zionist movement, but, rather, were part of the Masonic conspiracy.

     In the civil war following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the reactionary White Armies made extensive use of the Protocols to incite widespread slaughters of Jews.  At the same time, Russian emigrants brought the Protocols to western Europe, where the Nilus edition served as the basis for many translations, starting in 1920.  Just after its appearance in London in 1920, Lucien Wolf exposed the Protocols as a plagiary of the earlier work of Joly and Goedsche, in a pamphlet of the Jewish Board of Deputies.  The following year, in 1921, the story of the forgery was published in a series of articles in the London Times by Philip Grave, the paper’s correspondent in Constantinople.  A whole book documenting the forgery was also published in the same year in America by Herman Bernstein (The Truth About the “Protocols of Zion”; reprinted with an introduction by Norman Cohn.  New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1971).  Nevertheless, the Protocols continued to circulate widely.  They were even sponsored by Henry Ford in the United States until 1927, and formed an important part of the Nazis’ justification of genocide of the Jews in World War II. [87]

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     As Weber has documented, [88] the endorsement of the Protocols by James M. Gray, the president of Moody Bible Institute, and Arno C. Gaebelein, a key editor of the Scofield Reference Bible, was most problematic; the promulgation of the document by Gerald Winrod, documented by both Weber and Norman Cohn, [89] and William Bell Riley, was further linkage of recognizable first and second tier Dispensationalists and Fundamentalists with the dynamite represented by the Protocols, a situation that reached its peak with their publication by Henry Ford in the Dearborn Independent in the early 1920s.  From that time on, the Protocols became “exhibit A” in the propaganda campaign of the American anti-Semitic right. [90]   The magnitude of the historical irony cannot be lost–that those accused by their non-Dispensational brethren in Evangelical Protestantism of affording present day ethnic Israel a premier place in God’s redemptive-historical plan that was obviated by the events of 30-33 A. D. and 70 A. D., are simultaneously stained in the historical record of the 1920s and 1930s over the issue of anti-Semitism through the involvement of Gray, Gaebelein, Winrod, and Riley in the quagmire posed by the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

     Gaebelein’s writings reveal this paradox.  In his commentary on Daniel [91] , he makes clear his complete endorsement of the classic Dispensational scheme on the “Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks” and its “parenthesis” and “postponement” theories designed to enable the fulfillment of all of God’s promises to ethnic Israel for the restoration of their earthly Kingdom.  One hint, however, of what would come in his controversial endorsement of the Protocols in the 1933 work, The Conflict of the Ages, [92] occurs in the Daniel commentary attached as an addendum to page 150, where a full page chart on the “Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks” is printed.  In the portion of the chart entitled, “The Great Unreckoned Period,” (between the 69th and 70th weeks), Gaebelein places the repristination of ethnic Israel in Palestine. The reference to this event is entitled, “Part of the Jewish nation returns to the land in unbelief [emphasis mine] (Zionism) [emphasis mine].” [93]

     However correct this statement may be theologically, it may have had unfortunate consequences for both Gaebelein personally and the Dispensational movement historically, when coupled with his writings in chapter six of The Conflict of the Ages, a chapter entitled, “The Russian Revolution–Marxism Triumphant–World Revolution.”  Here Gaebelein makes specific linkage of the global Jewish constituency to the International Communist Conspiracy, with his documentation of the allegedly disproportionate percentage of Jewry involved in the Bolshevist Revolution in Russia.  Then comes the climax–his endorsement of the Protocols:

And now we have to say something about that extremely mysterious document known as “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.”  This document first came to light about 16 years before the first Russian Revolution.  It was published by a Russian, Serge Nilus in 1901 and passed through a number of editions.  A copy was deposited in the British Museum in 1907.  The information as to Nilus is meager.  We have seen the title page of one of these original editions and that page gives a strong indication that the man was a believer in the Word of God, in prophecy, and must have been a true Christian [emphasis mine]. The title is “It is Near at the Door.”  Then we noticed the following Scripture passages printed on the title page: Matthew xxiv: 33; Mark xiii: 29;   Luke 21: 31; Revelation i: 3; xxii: 10; Daniel xii: 4.  On the rest of this page we find the following statements: “Concerning something people do not wish to believe and which is so near [emphasis original].”  Fourth edition of the book “Near is the Coming of Antichrist and the Kingdom of the Devil on Earth.”  Revised and considerably augmented by later Researches and investigation.  “Dedicated to the Small Herd of Christ. [emphasis original]” Finally two other passages are quoted in full: I Thessalonians v: 4 and Matthew xxiv: 13.  [notice all of the Scripture passages cited by the document are classic eschatological texts–Dankof] Furthermore in reading these “Protocols” as contained in the book of Nilus, one becomes deeply convinced that an humble man of the stamp of Nilus could not possibly have written such a deeply worded statement.  The reading of these Protocols impress one rather that they are the work of a set of very able men, students of history, of economics, and world politics [emphasis mine].  But the most important fact is that throughout the twenty-four Protocols we have a very pronounced re-statement of the principal theories of Illuminism and Marxism [emphasis original]. They have been branded a forgery by Jews and Gentiles.  The authorship of this serious document will, in the opinion of the writer, never be ascertained.  The words of the father of modern Zionism, Dr. Theodor Herzl, advocating a Jewish state, saying–“When we sink we become a revolutionary proletariat,” are insufficient to link Zionism with the Protocols, as it has been attempted.  But the advocated plan of World Domination and World Revolution is a most sinister one.  And here is the most astonishing fact, nearly all that these Protocols advocate, the destruction of Christian civilization [emphasis mine], has at least been partially been brought about by the Revolution and Sovietism.  The work of undermining is still followed.  A painstaking and deeper study of the Protocols, compared with present day world conditions, must lead, and does lead, to the conviction, that the plan of the Protocols, who ever concocted it, is not a crude forgery [crude forgery emphasis in original].  Behind it are hidden, unseen actors, powerful and cunning, who follow the plan still, bent on the overthrow of our civilization [emphasis mine].  (Quotes from the Protocols follow in the text).[94]

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Music to study, think, write, and worship The Triune God.

     Gaebelein, and other well meaning Dispensationalists like Gray, had no idea at the time that their eschatology, designed to uphold and redeem ethnic Israel as the apple of the eye of God the Father, would be forever linked in many Jewish scholarly circles with both anti-Semitism generally and Nazism specifically.  This mental association is documented by Jewish scholar Norman Cohn in Warrant for Genocide in 1981, a work undertaken for the Brown University Judaic Studies Series in volume 23, a series with a Board of Editors comprised of leading Jewish historians and academics from George Washington University, Emory University, the University of California/Berkeley, Haifa University, the University of Texas, Ohio State University, et. al.  Cohn’s work explicitly takes Scriptural texts given a particular slant of interpretation by Dispensationalists and states the following:

This extraordinary fact is that even these weird extravagances found believers.  It is certain that many twentieth-century devotees of the Protocols really have imagined the secret Jewish government as composed of oriental sorcerers–one has only to look at the commentary on the Protocols published in Madrid in 1963 to find pages upon pages about ‘the kabbalah’.  Nor is this the only respect in which des Mousseaux provides the link between the Protocols and archaic, half-forgotten religious beliefs.  One of the most unexpected features of the Protocols is that Jewish world domination is to be exercised through a Jewish king, whom all nations will accept as their savior [emphasis mine].  This figure is taken straight from the end of the last chapter of Gougenot des Mousseaux.  As he nears his 500th page the industrious author allows himself a flight of prophetic frenzy in which he foretells how, in the midst of a great European war, the Jews will raise up ‘a man with a genius for political imposture, a sinister bewitcher, around whom fanatical multitudes will cluster.’  The Jews will hail this man as the Messiah, but he will be more than that. After destroying the authority of Christianity he will unite mankind in one great brotherhood and bestow on it a superabundance of material goods.  For these great services the Gentile nations too will accept him, exalt him, worship him as a god–but in reality, for all his apparent benevolence, he will be Satan’s instrument for the perdition of mankind [Cohn references Gougenot des Mousseaux, Le Juif, le Judaisme et la judaisation des peuples chretiens, Paris, 1869, pp.  485-98). Gougenot des Mousseaux states repeatedly that what inspired him to write this passage was the prophecy of Antichrist.  According to this prophecy in the second chapter of the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, the second coming of Christ and the Last Judgement will be immediately preceded by the appearance of Antichrist, ‘the man of sin, the son of perdition’.  He will demand to be worshiped by God; and by the miracles which he will perform with the Devil’s help he will deceive all who are willing to be deceived.  He will establish his rule over the whole world until the returning Christ destroys him with the breath of his mouth.  So far the New Testament–but in the second and third centuries after Christ, as the Church and the Synagogue came more and more sharply into competition and conflict with one another, Christian theologians began to give a new interpretation to this prophecy.  They foretold that Antichrist would be a Jew and would love the Jews above all peoples; while the Jews for their part would be the most faithful followers of Antichrist, accepting him as the Messiah.  As to what would happen next, the theologians were divided.  If some expected the Jews to be miraculously converted to Christianity, others expected that they would follow Antichrist to the end and on the return of Christ would be sent, along with Antichrist, to endure the torments of hell for all eternity. It has been argued elsewhere that the Nazi belief is a Jewish world-conspiracy represents a revival, in a secularized form, of certain apocalyptic beliefs which once formed part of the Christian world-view (see Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, revised editions, London and New York, 1961-2, pp. 62-3, 310).  In this instance one can trace the precise way in which an apocalyptic belief–in the coming of Antichrist–contributed to the making of the Protocols, which were to become part of the Nazi scriptures.  And indeed the connexion between the Protocols and the Antichrist prophecy does not stop there.  In later chapters we shall see how the first important edition of the Protocols appeared in a Russian book about the imminent coming of Antichrist; and how something of the same apocalyptic atmosphere appears even in the thinking and writing of Hitler and Rosenberg as soon as they touch on the Protocols and the Jewish world-conspiracy. [95]  

WinterDreamwithFlynn04

Encountering the Mystery of the Real Presence of Christ as a Child in Trinity Lutheran Church of Wahiawa, Hawaii.

 

     Thus, a novel interpretation of the book of Daniel and the “Prophecy of Seventy Weeks,” which originated in the early 19th century in the British Isles and later became prominent in post Civil War America through the ministry of Darby and his “exclusive Brethren” to key American Evangelicals, has had a turbulent history in the 20th century.  To its non-Dispensational Evangelical detractors, it has embodied a non-Biblical view of the Kingdom and the Church which ascribes to ethnic Israel a significance and importance in world history thought to have ceased in God’s redemptive-historical time line with the destruction of the Temple in A. D. 70 at the hands of the Romans; to a secular political world and news media, it has provided the only interpretive key to understanding the improbable alliance of many Protestant Evangelicals with Israel and many of its Jewish allies and supporters on the political port side of the spectrum; to others, its eschatological scheme suggests the historical opposite of what its adherents claim, namely an ideological foundation for world anti-Semitism and virulent anti-Semitic propaganda.  The “Prophecy of 70 Weeks” is to some what Churchill suggested of Russia, “I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia.  It is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.” [96]

[Bonus:  Mark Dankof recommends “The Father of Modern Zionism?  William E. Blackstone” by Jonathan Moorhead in JETS 53/54 (December 2010), 787-800, written years after this research manuscript by the former at Westminster Theological Seminary.]

 

Endnotes

[1] .  Dennis Reiter, Historicism and Futurism in Historic Premillennialism: 1878-1975.  M. A. Thesis,  Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois: 25 and 74-97.

[2] .  C. Norman Kraus, Dispensationalism in America–Its Rise and Development.  Richmond: John Knox Press, 1958;

         Timothy P. Weber, Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming: American Premillennialism 1875-1982, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983;  “How Evangelicals Became Israel’s Best Friend.”  In Christianity Today, October 5, 1998: 39-49; “Happily at the Edge of the Abyss:  Popular Premillennialism in America,” in Ex Auditu, Volume 6, 1990: 87-101.

[3] .  Dr. Wallace Emerson, Unlocking the Mysteries of Daniel, Orange: Promise Publishing Co., 1988:  vi-vii of Introduction.

[4] .  R.K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969: 1110-1111.

[5] .  E. J. Young, Introduction to the Old Testament, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 8th printing 1977: 362-363.

[6] .  E. J. Young, “Daniel.”  In Daniel The New Bible Commentary Revised, edited by Donald Guthrie, Alec  Motyer, Alan M. Stibbs, and Donald J. Wiseman.  Inter-Varsity Press, 1970: 699-700.

[7] .  Louis F. Hartman, “.”  In the Jerome Biblical Commentary, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968: 457.

 [8] .  ibid., 457-458.

[9] .  ibid., 457.

[10] .  ibid., 457.

[11] .  ibid., 457.

[12] .  ibid., 457.

[13] .  Reiter, op. cit., 144.

[14] .  ibid., 74-97.

[15] .  O. T. Allis, Prophecy and the Church, Phillipsburg, Presbyterian and Reformed, 1945: 111.

[16] .  ibid., 111-112.

[17] .  ibid., 112.

[18] .  ibid., 112.

[18] .  ibid., 112.

[19] .  ibid., 112.

[20] .  ibid., 27.

[21] .  Allis, op. cit., 113.

[22] .  ibid., 113-114.

[23] .  ibid., 114.

[24] .  ibid., 114.

[25] .  ibid., 115.

[26] .  ibid., 115.

[27] .  ibid., 115.

[28] .  Young, “Daniel”, op. cit., 700.

[29] .  John Walvoord, The Rapture Question, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 19th printing 1979; The Blessed Hope and the Tribulation, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976; The Nations, Israel and the Church in Prophecy, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988 [Reprint (1st work) of The Nations in Prophecy, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1967.  Reprint (2nd work) of Israel in Prophecy, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1962.  Reprint (3rd work) of The Church in Prophecy, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1964.

[30] .  Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1973; The Prophets of Israel, Grand Rapids: Baker, 1979.

[31] .  Herman Hoyt, “Dispensational Premillennialism,” in The Meaning of the Millennium–4 Views, Robert G. Clouse, editor, Inter-Varsity Press, 1977: 63-92.

[32] .  Paul Feinberg, “The Case for the Pre-Tribulation Rapture Position,” in The Rapture–Pre, Mid, or Post Tribulational?, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984: 45-86.

[33] .  Charles Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today, Chicago: Moody Press, 1965.

[34] .  Sir Robert Anderson, The Coming Prince, Grand Rapids: Kregel, 11th reprint 1984.  An excellent  modern essay which corroborates Anderson’s view of 360 day “prophetic years” is found in the work of Harold W. Hoehner, “Chronological          Aspects of the Life of Christ–Part VI: Daniel’s Seventy Weeks and New Testament Chronology,” in Bibliotheca Sacra, Volume 132, Number 525, January-March 1975: 47-65.

[35] .  Arno C. Gaebelein, Daniel, New York: Our Hope Publications, 1911; The Conflict of the Ages, New York: Our Hope Publications, 1933.

[36] .  William E. Blackstone, Jesus is Coming, New York/Chicago/London/Edinburgh: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1898, 1908, 1932.

[37] .  William B. Riley, The Evolution of the Kingdom, New York: The Book Stall, 1913.

[38] .  Allis, op. cit., 115.

[39] . J. Randall Price, “Daniel’s Seventy Weeks, Dispensational Interpretation,” in Dictionary of Premillennial Theology, Grand Rapids, Kregel, 1996: 76.

[40] .  ibid., 76-78.

[41] .  ibid., 77. Curiously, J. Barton Payne, a post-tribulationalist, also affirms these six goals from Daniel 9: 24, referring to them as “six infinitival phrases of purpose,” in “The Goal of Daniel’s Seventy Weeks”, Journal of the Evangelical Theological  Society 21/2, June 1978: 97-115.  The quotation is from page 97 and includes Payne’s citation of E. J.           Young’s idea that the six items presented in 9: 24 settle the terminus ad quem of the prophecy, while the termination of the 70 sevens coincides with the first advent of Christ.  See. E. J. Young, The Prophecy of Daniel, a Commentary, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949: 201.

[42] .  ibid., 77.

[43] .  ibid., 77-78.

[44] .  Kraus, op. cit., 45.

[45] .  ibid., 45, quoting George Ladd in Crucial Questions About the Kingdom of God, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1952: 49.

[46] .  ibid., 45-46, quoting Robert Cameron in “Prophetic Teachers,” The Watchword, Vol. XVIII, October, 1986: 258.

[47] .  Weber, Living in the Shadow, op. cit., page 247, footnote 9 to chapter 1.

[48] .  ibid., 16.

[49] .  ibid., 16.

[50] .  ibid., 16.

[51] .  ibid., 18.

[52] .  ibid., 20.

[53] .  ibid., 21.

[54] .  Richard R. Reiter, “A History of the Development of the Rapture Positions,” in The Rapture–Pre, Mid, or Post Tribulational?  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984: 35-36.

[55] .  Weber, Living in the Shadow, op. cit., 22.

[56] .  ibid., 22.  Weber quotes Darby in his Collected Works, XI, 156.  On page 248 of Living in the Shadow, in footnote 23 for chapter 1, Weber observes that, “John Walvoord, a present-day dispensationalist, similarly states that one’s doctrine of the church is more important for the doctrine of the pretribulation rapture than is any particular scriptural passage. John Walvoord, The Rapture Question (Findlay, O.: Dunham Publishing, 1957), p. 16.”

[57] .  Kraus., op. cit., 28.

[58] .  ibid., 28 quoting James Bear in “Historic Premillennialism”, Union Theological Seminary Review, Vol. LV, May 1944, p. 215.

[59] .  ibid., 46.

[60] .  ibid., 43-44.

[61] .  ibid., 36.

[62] .  ibid., 41.

[63] .  ibid., 46.

[64] .  ibid., 48.

[65] .  ibid., 113.

[66] .  Weber, Living in the Shadow, op. cit., 21.

[67] .  ibid., 21.  Weber quotes Samuel Tregelles in The Hope of Christ’s Coming (London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1864), p. 35.  In his own footnote 21 for chapter 1 (p. 248), Weber notes that Ernst Sandeen thinks the charge to be “pernicious and totally groundless.”  See Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism, p.64. [68] .  ibid., 22. In his footnote 22 for chapter 1 (p. 248), Weber cites David McPherson as a leading advocate of this theory in The Incredible Cover-Up: The True Story of the Pre-Trib Rapture (Plainfield, N. J.: Logos International, 1975). [69] .  Dave MacPherson, The Great Rapture Hoax (Fletcher, N. C.: New Puritan Library, 1983) and The Rapture Plot          (Simpsonville, N. C.: Millennium III Publishers, 1995).

[70] .  MacPherson, The Great Rapture Hoax, op. cit., 125.

[71] .  ibid., 125-128.

[72] .  ibid., 132.

[73] .  ibid., 178.

[74] .  ibid., 178-179.

[75] .  ibid., 187.

[76] .  ibid., 197-198.

[77] .  Walvoord, The Rapture Question, op. cit., 150-155.

[78] .  Walvoord, The Blessed Hope and the Tribulation, op. cit., 42-48.

[79] .  Weber, Living in the Shadow, op. cit., 22.

[80] .  Walvoord, The Rapture Question, op. cit., 150-151.

 [81] .  Walvoord, The Blessed Hope, op. cit., 42.

[82] .  Weber, “How Evangelicals Became Israel’s Best Friend,” Christianity Today, October 5, 1998: 41.  Noteworthy supplemental reading to buttress Weber’s point here is found in Blackstone’s own Jesus is Coming (New York/Chicago/London/Edinburgh: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1898, 1908,1932), pages 236-242 which  comprise a section entitled, “Zionism.”

[83] .  ibid., 42.

[84] .  ibid., 47.

[85] .  ibid., 41.

[86] .  ibid., 42-43.  See also Weber’s discussion of this tragedy in chapter 8 of his Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming, pp. 177-203.

[87]. The Jewish Student Online Research Center (JSOURCE).  Http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/anti-semitism/protocols.html

[88] .  Weber, Living in the Shadow, op. cit., 154-157 and “Israel’s Best Friend” in Christianity Today, op. cit., 42-43.

[89] .  Norman Cohn, Warrant for Genocide, Chico: Scholars Press, Brown University Judaic Studies  23, 1981., 236f.

[90] .  Weber, “Israel’s Best Friend,” op. cit., 43.

[91] .  Arno C. Gaebelein, Daniel, New York: Our Hope Publishers, 1911, 129-150.

[92] .  Arno C. Gaebelein, The Conflict of the Ages, New York: Our Hope Publishers, 1933.

[93] .  Gaebelein, Daniel, op. cit., addendum to page 150.

[94] .  Gaebelein, Conflict, op. cit., 99-100.

[95] .  Cohn, op. cit., 42-43.

[96] .  The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, edited by Angela Partington, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 4th edition 1992, page 202.  Quoting Churchill in his 1 October 1939 radio broadcast, later reprinted in Into Battle (1941), p. 131.

Selected Bibliography

Books, Commentaries,  and Dissertations

Allis, O. T.  Prophecy and the Church.  Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1945.

Anderson, Sir Robert.  The Coming Prince.  Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1986 (10th reprint).

Archer, Gleason L., Feinberg, Paul D., Moo, Douglas J., Reiter, Richard R.  The Rapture–Pre, Mid, or Post Tribulational?  Academie Press.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984.

Ariel, Yaakov.  On Behalf of Israel: American Fundamentalist Attitudes Toward Jews, Judaism, and Zionism, 1865-1945. Chicago Studies in the History of American Religion 1.Brooklyn:  Carlson Publications, 1991.

Bass, Clarence.  Backgrounds in Dispensationalism.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1960.

Blackstone, W. E. B.  Jesus is Coming.  New York/Chicago/London/Edinburgh: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1898, 1908, 1932.

Canfield, J. M.  The Incredible Scofield and His Book.  1984.

Clouse, Robert G., editor.  The Meaning of the Millennium–4 views.  Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1977.

Cohn, Norman.  Warrant for Genocide–the myth of the Jewish world-conspiracy and the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Brown University Judaic Studies Number 23.  Scholars Press, 1983.

Couch, Mal, general editor.  Dictionary of Premillennial Theology.  Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1996.

Ehlert, Arnold D.  A Bibliographic History of Dispensationalism.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1965.

Emerson, Dr. Wallace.  Unlocking the Mysteries of Daniel.  Orange: Promise Publishing, 1988.

Enns, Dr. Paul.  The Moody Handbook of Theology.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1989.

Gaebelein, Arno C.  The Conflict of the Ages.  New York: Publication Office “Our Hope”, 1933.

________.  Daniel.  New York: Publication Office “Our Hope”, 1911.

Gerstner, John.  A Primer on Dispensationalism.  Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1982.

Harrison, Roland Kenneth.  Introduction to the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969.

Hartman, Louis F.  “Daniel.”  In The Jerome Biblical Commentary.  Editors Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy.  Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1968.

Hoekema, Anthony.  The Bible and the Future.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979.

Hudson, Winthrop S.  Religion in America.  New York: Scribners, 3rd edition, 1981.

Ironside, H. A.  A Historical Sketch of the Brethren Movement.  Grand Rapids, 1942.

Kalafian, Michael.  The Prophecy of 70 Weeks of the Book of Daniel.  Lanham: University Press of America, 1991.

Kraus, C. Norman.  Dispensationalism in America–Its Rise and Development.  Richmond: Knox, 1958.  (excellent  bibliography)

 Lindsey, Hal.  The Late Great Planet Earth.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1970.

 MacPherson, Dave.  The Great Rapture Hoax.  Fletcher: New Puritan Library. 1983.

________.  The Incredible Cover-Up: The True Story of the Pre-Trib Rapture.  Plainfield: Logos International, 1975.

________.  The Rapture Plot.  Simpsonville: Millennium III Publishers, 1995.

Marsden, George M.  Fundamentalism and American Culture–The Shaping of Twentieth Century Evangelicalism 1870-1925. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Marsden, Victor E., translator,  Protocols of the Meeting of the Learned Elders of Zion.  London:  Britons Publishing, 1922.

Matheny, James F. and Marjorie B.  The 70 Weeks of Daniel: An Exposition of Daniel 9: 24-27.  Brevard: Jay and Associates Publishers, 1990.

McClain, Alva.  Daniel’s Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1940.

Millard, A. R.  “Daniel.”  In The New Layman’s Bible Commentary.  Editors G. C. D. Howley, F. F. Bruce, H. L. Ellison: Regency Reference Library.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979, 901-926.

Pentecost, J. Dwight.  “Daniel.”  In The Bible Knowledge Commentary–An Exposition of the Scriptures by Dallas Seminary Faculty–Old Testament.  Editors John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck.  Victor Books, 3rd Printing 1994: 1323-1377.

Reiter, Dennis L.  Historicism and Futurism in Historic Premillennialism: 1878-1975.

Riley, William B.  The Evolution of the Kingdom.  New York: The Book Stall, 1913.

Ryrie, Charles C.  Dispensationalism Today.  Chicago: Moody, 1965.

Sandeen, Ernest.  The Roots of Fundamentalism.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Scofield, C. I.  The New Scofield Reference Bible.  Editorial Committee, E. Schuler English, et. al., New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Walvoord, John.  The Blessed Hope and the Tribulation.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976.

________.   The Nations, Israel, and the Church in Prophecy.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988.

________.  The Rapture Question.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979.

Weber, Timothy P.  Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming: American Premillennialism,  1875-1982.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983.  (excellent bibliography)

Wood, Leon J.  A Commentary on Daniel.  Regency Reference Library.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1973.

__________.  The Prophets of Israel.  Grand Rapids: Baker, 1979.

Young, Edward J.  An Introduction to the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 8th printing 1977.

Articles

Butler, Jonathan M.  “A Review of Timothy P. Weber’s, ‘Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming–American Premillennialism 1875-1982′.”  Church History 58, Dec 1989: 546. Davis, Moshe.  “American Christian Devotees in the Holy Land.”  Christian Jewish Relations 20, Winter 1987: 3-20.

Doukhan, Jacques.  “The 70 Weeks of Daniel : An Exegetical Study”.  Andrews University Seminary Studies 17, Spring 1979: 1-22.

Ehlert, Arnold D.  “A Bibliography of Dispensationalism.”  Bibliotheca Sacra, Vols. 51, 52, 53 (in series), 1944-1946.

Francisco, Clyde T.  “70 Weeks of Daniel.”  Review and Expositor 57, Ap 1960: 126-137.

Greenberg, Gershon.  “Fundamentalists, Israel, and Theological Openness.”  Christian-Jewish Relations 19 No. 3, S 1986: 27-33. Gurney, Robert J. M.  “The 70 Weeks of Daniel 9: 24-27.”  Evangelical Quarterly 53, Ja-Mr 1981:  29-36.

Handy, Lowell K.  “A Review of Michael Kalafian’s ‘The Prophecy of 70 Weeks of the Book of Daniel.”  Encounter 53, Spring 1992: 197-199. Hannah, John D.  “A Review of ‘The Incredible Scofield and His Book’ by J. M. Canfield.” Bibliotheca Sacra 147, July-Sept            1990: 351-364. Hasel, Gerhard F.  “The Hebrew Masculine Plural for ‘Weeks’ in the Expression ‘70 weeks’ in Daniel 9: 24.”  Andrews University Seminary Studies 31, Summer 1993: 105-118.

Hoehner, Harold W.  “Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ–Part 6: Daniel’s 70 Weeks and New Testament Chronology.”  Bibliotheca Sacra 132, Ja-Mr 1975: 47-65.

Kennedy, Earl W.  “A Review of Timothy P. Weber’s ‘Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming:  American Premillennialism 1875-1982′.”  Reformed Review 41, Autumn 1987: 76-77.

McComiskey, Thomas.  “The 70 ‘Weeks’ of Daniel Against the Background of Ancient Near Eastern Literature.”  Westminster Theological Journal 47 No. 1, Spring 1985: 18-45.

Newman, Robert C.  “Daniel’s 70 Weeks and the Old Testament Sabbath Year Cycle.”  Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 16, Fall 1973: 229-234.

Payne, J. Barton.  “Goal of Daniel’s 70 Weeks.”  Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 21:  Je 1978: 97-115.

Poythress, Vern Sheridan.  “Hermeneutical Factors in Determining the Beginning of the Seventy Weeks (Daniel 9: 25).”  Trinity Journal No. 2, Autumn 1985: 131-149.

Russell, C. Allyn.  “Adoniram Judson Gordon: 19th Century Fundamentalist.”  American Baptist Quarterly 4 No. 1, Mr 1985: 61-89.

Saucy, Robert L.  “Contemporary Dispensational Thought.”  Theological Students Fellowship Bulletin 7 No. 4, Mr-Ap 1984: 10-11.

Scaer, David P.  “Lutheran Viewpoints on the Challenge of Fundamentalism–Eschatology.” Concordia Journal 10, Ja ‘84: 4-11.

Smalley, W. F.  “Another View of the Palestine Situation.”  The King’s Business, XXI (June 1930):  290-292.

Weber, Timothy P.  “A Review of Yaakov Ariel’s ‘On Behalf of Israel: American Fundamentalist Attitudes Toward Jews, Judaism, and Zionism, 1865-1945′.”  Church History 62: Mr 1993: 138-141. ________.  “Happily at the Edge of the Abyss: Popular Premillennialism in America.”  Ex Auditu 6, 1990: 87-100. ________.  “How Evangelicals Became Israel’s Best Friend.”  Christianity Today, October 5, 1998: 39-49.

Whitcomb, John.  “Daniel’s Great 70 Weeks Prophecy: An Exegetical Insight.”  Grace Theological Journal No. 2, Fall 1981: 259-263.

Witmer, John A.  “A Review of James and Marjorie Matheny’s ‘The 70 Weeks of Daniel: An Exposition of Daniel 9: 24-27.” Bibliotheca Sacra 149, Oct-Dec 1992: 491.

Book Review: The Real Lincoln (2000)

BOOK REVIEW

The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War

by Dr. Thomas J. DiLorenzo

Prima Publishing: Roseville, California

333 pages, 2002

ISBN: 0-7615-3641-8

Reviewed by Mark Dankof for Mark Dankof’s America

Re-post and re-publishing permission granted with attribution.

655FBD83-1CED-4343-BC86-EA1A50F655E1

While I have considered the preservation of the constitutional power of the General Government to be the foundation of our peace and safety at home and abroad, I yet believe that the maintenance of the rights and authority reserved to the states and to the people, not only are essential to the adjustment and balance of the general system, but the safeguard to the continuance of a free government. I consider it as the chief source of stability to our political system, whereas the consolidation of the states into one vast republic, sure to be aggressive abroad and despotic at home, will be the certain precursor of that ruin which has overwhelmed all those that have preceded it. 

–General Robert E. Lee to Lord Acton on December 15th, 1866 quoted in The Real Lincoln (p. 268)

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General Robert E. Lee warned of a Despotic American Empire at Home and Abroad.

 

            The former Iranian Ambassador to the United Nations, Fereydoun Hoveyda, has recently brought his considerable historical knowledge of ancient and modern Persia to the task of writing about the role of mythology in explaining facets of Iranian cultural, political, and religious life to the uninitiated in the Western world.

            Hoveyda’s invaluable contribution in this regard is matched in the American political and cultural context by Dr. Thomas DiLorenzo, professor of economics in the Sellinger School of Business and Management at Loyola College in Maryland, in the latter’s salient, prescient analysis of the Presidential reign of Abraham Lincoln and his prosecution of an American Civil War in The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War.

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General Robert E. Lee foresaw it all.  The end of the War Between the States was the end of Republic and the beginning of Empire.

            DiLorenzo’s analysis of Lincoln, accompanied by copious historical documentation, shatters the mythology surrounding the 16th President’s motives and agenda in pursuing the War Between The States. The author provides convincing evidence for Lincoln’s overt racism as expressed in his documented views on racial supremacy as manifested in his desire to colonize all American blacks outside the continental United States (p. 4); that Lincoln’s views were matched by a palpable majority in the North who utilized such tools as state constitutional amendments to prohibit the emigration of black people into Northern states like the President’s home state of Illinois (p. 4); and that Lincoln’s war which killed 620,000 Americans [equivalent to 5 million deaths in 2002 population numbers and percentages] and destroyed 40 percent of the American economy, was a singularly terrible, unjustified conflict given the proven success in the 19th century of the peaceful end to slavery through the policy of compensated emancipation (p. 4). DiLorenzo duly notes that, “Between 1800 and 1860, dozens of countries, including the entire British Empire, ended slavery peacefully; only in the United States was a war involved (p. 4).”

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            What then, does The Real Lincoln lay out as the actual road map for understanding the war and the accompanying strategy and psyche of Abraham Lincoln in resorting to armed force against the Southern states? In his tome, DiLorenzo underscores the mythological President’s political and moral failure in pursuing the bloodshed of fellow countrymen with an evil, unnecessary, coercive methodology. The author insists that the prevailing world-wide trends between 1800-1860 would have resulted in the irenic end to the institution of slavery by; 1) compensated emancipation; 2) an encouraged advance of the industrial revolution in the South with capital-intensive agriculture and manufacturing (p. 277); and 3) the inevitable furtherance of Enlightenment philosophy in the American mind and culture, a philosophy which in the end game would have been ideologically incompatible with the continuation of the institution, as had been the case throughout the British empire (pp. 276-277). For the Loyola College Professor of Economics, the real Lincoln agenda in the War Between the States is located in the fact that:

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. . .the War Between the States so fundamentally transformed the nature of American government. Before the war, government in America was the highly decentralized, limited government established by the founding fathers. The war created the highly centralized state that Americans labor under today. The purpose of American government was transformed from the defense of individual liberty to the quest for empire. . . . Lincoln thought of himself as the heir to the Hamiltonian political tradition, which sought a much more centralized governmental system, one that would plan economic development with corporate subsidies financed by protectionist tariffs and the printing of money by the central government. . . . It was Lincoln’s real agenda. . . . Henry Clay’s “American System.” For his entire political life Lincoln was devoted to Clay and Clay’s economic agenda. The debate over this economic agenda was arguably the most important political debate during the first seventy years of the nation’s existence. It involved the nation’s most prominent statesmen and pitted the states’ rights Jeffersonians against the centralizing Hamiltonians (who became Whigs and, later, Republicans). The violence of war finally ended the debate in 1861. . . . A war was not necessary to free the slaves, but it was necessary to destroy the most significant check on the powers of the central government: the right of secession. (Introduction)

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Robert E. Lee foresaw the ravages of an American Empire based on a pack of lies, militarism, and a despotic domestic police state.

            Chapter 5 demonstrates that this right of secession was rooted in the proper understanding of the Declaration of Independence as a “Declaration of Secession” from England, with the New England Federalists attempting to secede from the Union after Jefferson’s election in 1800, for more than a decade. DiLorenzo documents the pre-1861 assumption of most commentators in both North and South that states had the inherent right to secede from the Union as a last check on the excesses of an arbitrary, centralized Federal government, buttressing his case with telling quotations from Jefferson, John Quincy Adams (a Unionist), de Tocqueville, and even Alexander Hamilton. It was Lincoln, however, who invented the preposterous theory that the Federal government created the states, which were therefore not sovereign entities, subsequently waging a war to establish his deliberate inversion of the Constitutional intent of the founders. The Federal government became by force of the sword an involuntary Union, “the master, rather than the servant, of the people–especially once it imposed military conscription and income taxation on the population (p. 264).” Thus, the “American System” of Henry Clay began its implementation in earnest with Abraham Lincoln, creating a Leviathan Central State of oppressive taxation and regulation at home, and imperialistic expansion abroad, that has been unchecked ever since.

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“Democracy” in the American Empire, Abe Lincoln Style.

            The Real Lincoln also underscores the importance of the individual tenets of the Clay/Lincoln program of economic centralization in the destruction of a Constitutionally informed American Federalism, especially in protectionism; government control of the money supply through a nationalized banking system; and government subsidies for railroad, shipping, and canal-building enterprises (p. 54). DiLorenzo summarizes the economic agenda end game of the “American System” by quoting Murray Rothbard’s classic equation of the former with:

. . . namely, mercantilism. . . . ‘which reached its height in the Europe of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,’ [and] was ‘a system of statism which employed economic fallacy to build up a structure of imperial state power, as well as special subsidy and monopolistic privilege to individuals or groups favored by the state.’ (56)

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            This economic system, presided over by the man William Lloyd Garrison tagged as the “President of African Colonization,” (p. 19) dovetailed perfectly with the rest of the 16th President’s statist agenda, implemented with a methodology that effectively mixed duplicity with coercion. Seen with these lenses, the “liberator of the slaves” becomes the manipulative issuer of an Emancipation Proclamation which liberated blacks only in rebel-held territories after Lee’s defeat of Burnside at Fredericksburg in December of 1862. Lincoln’s Proclamation issued exemptions for a list of enumerated states, and was designed to liberate only those slaves which could be utilized for servile insurrection on isolated plantations (pp. 42-43), while concurrently discouraging European trade and political support for the Confederacy (pp. 37-38). The Great Economic Centralizer may also be fully credited for:

. . .launching a military invasion without the consent of Congress; suspending habeas corpus; imprisoning thousands of Northern citizens without trial for merely opposing his policies; censoring all telegraph communication and imprisoning dozens of opposition newspaper publishers; nationalizing the railroads; using Federal troops to interfere with elections; confiscating firearms; and deporting an opposition member of Congress, Clement L. Vallandigham, after he opposed Lincoln’s income tax proposal during a Democratic Party rally in Ohio. . . . In addition to abandoning the Constitution, the Lincoln administration established another ominous precedent by deciding to abandon international law and the accepted moral code of civilized societies and wage war on civilians. (6)

            In this latter regard, DiLorenzo reminds the reader of the scorched earth policies of Sheridan, Grant, and William Tecumseh Sherman, not only in the War Between the States but in the post-war eradication of the Plains Indians in acts of mass murder designed to pave the way for the government’s transcontinental railroads; the exploitative policies of Lincoln’s successors in the Reconstructionist South of 1865-77; and the subsequent imperialistic policies abroad of McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and their successors in the furtherance of American Empire. In each case, The Real Lincoln makes a compelling case that in an epochal sense, it all began with the methods and motives of America’s 16th President.

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If You’re for Republic, not Empire, You Certainly Are.

            Finally, the informed reader of The Real Lincoln will be duly impressed with the ominous parallels between the Republican 16th President and the Republican 43rd Chief Executive of the United States. It is George W. Bush who has gone beyond Lincoln’s national centralized banking in facilitating globalist financial structures like the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, The North American Free Trade Agreement the World Trade Organization, GATT, and the proposed Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (managed trade, not free trade). It is Mr. Bush who has increased Federal spending beyond that of his predecessor for a variety of agencies, including new monies for the Federal Department of Education. It is Mr. Bush who has prosecuted an offensive war against a foreign power without the necessary consent and authorization of Congress according to Article 1, Section 8. Similarly, it is Mr. Bush whose Administration seeks, through the USA Patriot Act and the Domestic Security Enhancement Act (DSEA), the broadest authority ever given the Executive Branch of the Federal government to conduct warrantless searches and seizures of homes and businesses; to hold citizen suspects in custody without legal representation for unspecified periods of time; and to pursue the broadest expansion of electronic surveillance operations in the history of the United States. And where 19th century British mercantilism is concerned, Murray Rothbard’s textbook definition of it as government’s special subsidy and monopolistic privilege to individuals or groups favored by the state, must be applied in spades to the monarchial reign of King George W. Bush and his cabal of advisers influenced by international bankers, oil and natural gas consortiums, insurance and media conglomerates, and the much vaunted Israeli Lobby. The 19th century Credit Mobilier and Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads are now the domain of UNOCAL; Halliburton Oil; Kellogg, Brown, and Root; Trieme Partners; Exxon/Mobil; Chevron; Paladin Capital; the Carlyle Group; and the American Israeli Political Action Committee (AIPAC). And in this merger of the denizens of the Central State with multinational economic conglomerates and globalist structures of impending World Government, the American military in most Lincolnesque fashion now serves as the janissaries of coercive interests totally at odds with historic American Federalism and those the latter was designed to protect.

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A Salute to General Amir Ali Hajizadeh: The Man Who Told The Truth

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The global public learned the truth today about the tragic crash of the Ukraine International Airlines in Tehran on January 8th, 2020. It was mistakenly shot down. Full responsibility was taken by General Amir Ali Hajizadeh of the IRGC’s Aerospace Division under circumstances described on a preliminary basis by RT.

 

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The paradox is this: In a nightmare of cosmic dimensions for General Hajizadeh and the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, we learn about a military commander and a government with far more honor than the current government of the United States. This latter government is permeated with pathological liars and sycophants, from the President of the United States, the Secretary of State, and the Vice President of the United States, to the top military and intelligence brass of an American National Security establishment and news media all under the spell of careerism, big money, and the Zionist State of Israel.

 

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The Man Who Told The Truth: A Salute to General Amir Ali Hajizadeh.

 

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This is nothing new. Pearl Harbor, the assassination of President Kennedy, and 9-11 are the most obvious examples of the criminality of a series of American Chief Executives in perpetrating monstrous crimes and coverups of crimes aimed at the Constitution of the United States, the people of these United States, and various countries and peoples of the world ad infinitum.

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 The biggest lie in the last two decades has been the truth about 9-11, and the global War on Terror justified by the false spin and narrative. This narrative includes the falsehoods and omissions of truth as they relate to the government and people of Iran, ranging from Operation Ajax in 1953, the American shoot down of Iran Air 655, the employment of the “Islamic-Marxist” MEK terrorist cult to assassinate Iranian scientists, the role of the United States and Israel in supporting ISIS and al-Qaeda in Syria as a dagger aimed at Iran, and the lies about the JCPOA/P5+1 treaty told by Donald Trump and his Zionist warmongers, up to and including the painful truth I shared with the Tasnim News Agency :  The President of the United States commissioned the illegal, extra-judicial assassination of General Qassem Soleimani. He committed a war crime. And the majority of the people in the United States support this, the polls tell us, along with the overwhelming majority of Mr. Trump’s “core base” according to the Washington Examiner.

 

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Which brings us full circle to the honorable and excruciating admission of General Amir Ali Hajizadeh regarding the air tragedy of January 8th and the how and why of what happened.

The endgame is this: General Hajizadeh is The Man Who Told The Truth. His government under fire told the truth. I haven’t seen an American general or American government do that since November 22, 1963.

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And as for the 2020 American Presidential “Elections” it’s too bad a fellow named Hajizadeh can’t run. I’d vote for him. He has told the painful truth, under fire. What American general does this? David Petraeus? Wes Clark? Colin Powell before the UN on Saddam’s WMDs?

As for General Hajizadeh’s credentials as an Air Force commander, I’d make him USAF Chief of Staff right now. I’d sleep better at night knowing an honorable fellow had replaced the Israeli Zionist currently there.

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I once had my photo taken with The Lying Sack of Shit in the Middle. Texas Governors Race 1994. His Legacy of Presidential Lying and War Crimes Would Begin in 2001.

 

Dankof Hears the Audible Voice of God on Generations on EuroFolkRadio!

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The Aura of Theophanic Appearance over the Left Shoulder of The Chosen One During “Generations” with Andrew Carrington Hitchcock.

Mark Dankof joins Andrew Carrington Hitchcock on UK EuroFolkRadio on December 30th, 2019 for the News Summary and 2020 Predictions!

Sample Soothsayer Prediction: The Dallas Cowboys will still suck next year. 😂😂😂

Listen here!

Or via Twitter!
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Written by Mark Dankof

January 1, 2020 at 5:03 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

Dankof and Slattery’s Office Kwanzaa Party on RBN 😂😂😂🍺🍺🍺

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The Official Mark Dankof Kwanzaa Office Party Photo for the Republic Broadcasting Network (RBN). 

 

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Join Patrick Slattery and Mark Dankof on National Bugle Radio with their First Annual Office Kwanzaa Party for RBN Live!

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Listen here!

Catch it on Twitter!

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Mark Dankof on NBR on RBN Live: News Summary and Lindbergh v FDR and the Iran War Party March to WW III

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Here’s the Show for Friday, December 13th, 2019: Your background articles are: The National Bugle Radio Big Board  for the News Roundup and The Pearl Harbor/Lindbergh/FDR/Iran War Party 2019 thoughts and pictures of Mark Dankof for the Russian social media site Vkontakte

Listen here.

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“The Last Mooring” by the late Tom Freeman of the USS Arizona

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